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Communities and Ecosystems

IB Biology Year 1

piyanuch savantrad

on 28 January 2013

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Transcript of Communities and Ecosystems

Ecosystems Namfon Species A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Members of the same species have a common gene pool. Habitats The environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism. This lion is in it's natural habitat Lions natural
habitat: forest Population The number or body of inhabitants of a particular race or class in a place The population of penguin in this picture is five. Community A group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area Ecosystem Ecology The study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment Autotroph Organisms that are capable of making their own organic molecules as a food source.
Autotrophs make food which is often used by other organisms, they are producers. Detritivores An organism that ingests non-living organic matter. Saprotrophs An organism that lives on or in non-living matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products or digestions Consumers An organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed Food Web A food web is an interconnecting series of food chains. Since one organism often eats more than just one type of food, a simple food chain does not tell the whole story. Trophic Level Trophic level refers to its position in a food chain. Trophic levels offer a way of classifying organisms by their feeding relationships with the other organisms in the same ecosystem. Example of Trophic Level Food Web Construction Light as Energy Source The most important organisms in any food chain are the producers because without them, the next trophic level would have nothing to eat. Since photosynthesis organisms occupy the first trophic level, sunlight is the initial energy source for almost all communities. Energy Flow in a Food Chain Energy is transferred from one organism to the next when carbohydrates, lipids or proteins are digested. Energy Loss Only chemical energy can be used by the next trophic level. And only a small amount of the energy which an organism absorbs is converted into chemical energy.
No organism can utilize 100 percent of the energy present in the organic molecules of the food it eats. Pyramids of Energy Fish community in a tank A community and its abiotic environment, ocean ecosystem An ecologist Heterotrophs Heterotophs can't make their own food from inorganic matter, and must obtain organic molecules from other organisms.
Get their chemical energy from the autotrophs or from other heterotrophs Algae is an example of an autotroph. They used photosynthesis to produce their own food source. Sheep (heterotoph) eating grass (autotroph) A lion, the consumer, feeding off of a zebra Dung beetle feeds off of other animals' faeces and rolls it into a ball Fungi are saprotrophs Food Chain Food chain is a sequence showing the feeding relationships and energy floe between species. grass grasshopper example 1 snake hawk example 2 algae mayfly larva trout kingfisher example 3 diatoms copepods herring seal great white shark grass grasshopper snake rat hawk producer primary consumer secondary consumer tertiary consumer quaternary consumer producer primary consumer secondary consumer tertiary consumer plants, flowers, fruits, insects etc. rat bird frog butterfly lizard raven rabbit mountain lion bobcat PRODUCERS AND DECOMPOSERS PRIMARY CONSUMER SECONDARY CONSUMER TERTIARY CONSUMER Sunlight is the initial source of energy for all vegetation energy nutrients heat heat A pyramid of energy is used to show how much and how fast energy flows from one trophic level to the next in a community.
Because energy is lost, each level is always smaller than the one before, therefore it's a triangle. Energy and Nutrients In an ecosystem, energy enters in by the form of light, and lost as heat. Once it has been radiated into the environment, it can't be collected back. But as long as sunshine everyday, the ecosystem can continue to use up and lose heat energy this way.

Organisms must recycle nutrients for life to exist. Because organisms absorb valuable minerals and organic compounds and use them to build their cells. The resources are then locked up and unavailable to others, except eating or decomposition. Decomposers Decomposers (saportrophs and detritivores) break down the body parts of dead organisms. The digestive enzymes of decomposers convert the organic matter into a more usable form for themselves and for other organisms.
Decomposers recycle nutrients so that they are available and not locked inside the bodies or wastes of the other members of the ecosystem.
Saprotrophs on a dead log
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