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Madrigal and Secular Song in the 16th Century

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on 25 October 2013

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Transcript of Madrigal and Secular Song in the 16th Century

Madrigal and Secular Song in the 16th Century
- increased demand for published music
- growth of the amateur market
- desire for music in the vernacular
- instrumental music for the home

Secular Music in Spain
villano - a peasant

villancico - polyphonic composition about rustic life, eat/drink/be merry

short, strophic, syllabic, homophonic

influenced by Moorish Music and Dance

ad libitum percussion accompaniments
Italian Frottola
- mock popular songs for wealthy/aristocrats
- Italian counterpart of the Villancico
- Petrucci published first set in 1509
- syllabic, homophonic, dancelike rhythms (hemiola)
- a sung melody with other parts played/sung
- sometimes accompanied by lute
- topics: spurned love

Madrigal (Italian)
- primary secular genre of the 16th century
- emerges ~1520
- through composed (no refrains)
- sentimental, pastoral, erotic
- often ended with a 'moral'
- mixture of homophony and counterpoint
- 3, 4, 5, and more voices
- flexibility, some instruments could be involved
- primarily for musicians, inserted into plays

Early Madrigal Style
Philippe Verdelot (1480-1530)
Jacques Arcadelt (1507-1568)

1st generation centered in Florence/Rome
extensive use of madrigalism (word painting)
other 'witty' effects
use of homophony and polyphony

'augenmusik' - features noticed only by those reading the score. (ars subtilor)

Further Development
- Petrarchian Movement - renewed interest in Petrarch's work (1304-74)

- Willaert and Gioseffo Zarlino (1517-1590) intervallic treatment of harsh words to major 3rds and 6ths, pleasing words with minor 3rds and 6ths

- Cipriano de Rore (1516-1565) greatest mid-century madrigalist.
sought a revival of Greek traditions for rhetorical treatment
goes further to illustrate text, inflections, intervals, texture
uses chromaticism expressively and gains 'converts'

- some rise to prominence by women composers and women's ensembles
often banned from public performance by local Bishop
Late Renaissance Madrigals
- Orlando di Lasso and Philippe de Monte (1521-1603)
Franco Flemish treatment of Madrigal style

- Luca Marenzio (1553-1559) begins to use musical devices to show
great contrast between ideas.

- Mannerism - artistic movement that celebrated form, highly favors compositional tension, and an obsession with exaggerated aspects of form

Don Carlo Gesualdo (1561-1613)
- Prince of Venoza
- music marked by sharp dissonance, awkward harmonic changes
- intense chromaticism
- almost monodic treatment of text
- murders of 1st Wife and her consort

'lite' madrigals
- villanella - 3 part homophonic, use of parallel 5ths, mocking
- canzonetta - homophonic, simple harmonies, tuneful
- balletto - dance like, repeated phrases. fa la la la la refrains
The French Chanson in the 16th Century
- amateur singers
- syllabic, homophonic, strophic
- light-hearted
- published throughout Francophone regions
Claudin de Sermisy (1490 - 1562) and Clement Janequin (1485 - 1560)
extensive collections of chansons
sometimes refered to as Parisian Chansons
intabluated for play by lute and other plucked instruments
4 voice standard
additional texts of 'dimunitions' (ornamented versions)
Later developments
Franco Flemish Chanson- contrapuntal chansons

Musique Mesuree - Greek and Latin metrical schemes
music follows groupings of 2 and 3
Secular Music in England
-Consort Songs: early 16th century songs for 3 and 4 parts (Instrumental and Vocal) Usually accompanied by viols, recorders

- Musica Transalpina (1588) one of many publications of Italian Madrigals (translated) and sung in homes. English composers emulate this style.
Madrigals by Lassus, de Wert, Monte, Palestrina, Marenzio, and Ferrabosco the Elder
Thomas Morley (1557 - 1602)
- madrigals, canzonets, and ballets
- emulated Italian style
- set some texts by Shakespeare
- how-to texts for amateur musicians
Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practical Musicke (1597)
- later served as editor for The Triumphs of Orianna (1601)
- use of nonsense text to allow for reflection
- fa la la la la
- hey nonny nonny no
- often connoted an increase in meaning

- Thomas Weelkes modified Tomkins style - more chromaticism/madrigalism

John Dowland (1563-1626)
- solo ayres/Lute songs. Written for a solo voice and accompaniment on plucked instruments

- published as madrigals (in part-books) with each voice covering a strain of the lute accompaniment

- semper Dowland semper dolens

- applications to Elizabeth's Court denied

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