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Acid rain in China

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Yun Tan

on 5 November 2012

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Transcript of Acid rain in China

Acid Rain in China photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Forming Process Origin Impact What can be done? What is acid rain? Acid rain: Rain with pH<5.6
Acid rain is rain that has been made acidic by certain pollutants in the air. Acid rain is a type of acid deposition, which can appear in many forms. How it happens? contains oxygen atoms, are known as oxides of nitrogen.

For example, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen monoxide are oxides of nitrogen, and they are generically termed as Nox

The Nitrogen oxides(Nox) can become nitric acid in a similar way:
NOX+02 N205, N205+H202HNO3 Nitrogen Oxides Sulfur Oxide Chemical Time SO2 in the air can have chemical reaction with oxygen in the air under sunshine. Then SO2 may turn into sulfur trioxide (SO3). The chemical equation of this reaction is:
2SO2 +022SO3.

And then sulfur trioxide may change into sulfuric acid with water in the air.
SO3+H202HN03. Both wet and dry deposition can be carried by the wind, sometimes for very long distances. Acid deposition in wet and dry forms falls on buildings, cars, and trees and can make lakes acidic. Acid deposition in dry form can be inhaled by people and can cause health problems in some people.

Wet deposition is rain, sleet, snow, or fog that has become more acidic than normal. Dry deposition is another form of acid deposition, and this is when gases and dust particles become acidic. One third of China is suffering from acid rain caused by rapid industrial growth
Industrial combustion is responsible for around 70% sulfur dioxide emissions into the atmosphere Industrial Development Industrial Development A major cause of acid rain in China is the extensive use of coal. Most sulfur dioxide comes from power plants that use coal as their fuel. Combustion of fuel The number of motor vehicles in China has increased dramatically in recent years. Vehicles
Where do they come from? As it’s mentioned above, acid rain forms because of the sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide. China is a country with coal as its main energy source. The raw coal still accounts for 70 percent of the total energy consumption. Combustion of fuel China is the world's largest producer as well as consumer of coal. Combustion of fuel People in China become richer and can afford private car.

Automobiles produce a lot of nitrogen oxide, one of the chemical that cause acid rain.

Number of automobiles in use increases and the amount of acid rain increases. Vehicles In china, the human activity is the main origin of acid rain. Vehicles
Combustion of fuel
Industrial Development Industrial Development Industrial processes like the processing of crude oil, utility factories, and iron and steel industries produce huge amount of sulfur dioxide.

Emissions of sulfur dioxide - the chemical that causes acid rain - were double the safe level in China. In some areas, rainfall was 100% acid rain. Statistics from the Traffic Administration under the Ministry of Public Security.

Total quantity of automotive vehicles in China was 217 million by the end of June 2011 including nearly 72.1 million private cars. Vehicles The ecological effects of acid rain are most clearly seen in the aquatic, or water, environments, such as streams, lakes, and marshes. Acid rain fall into lakes and streams, making them become acidic, which leads to the death of aquatic creatures. Acid rain has physiological effects on crop plants. Acid rain causes photosynthetic rate to decline as well as reduce root lengths and leaf numbers. Primarily through its reactions with Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) to form ground-level Ozone (smog), acid rain causes tremendous damage to soil fertility, aquatic life, and durable inorganic materials such as stone and metals.

Some of the greatest measurable effects of acid rain can be observed on human constructions, particularly old buildings with facades built of corrosion-prone metals such as copper and porous stone such as limestone.
Here are two endangered heritage sites in China. 1.LESHAN GIANT BUDDHA, MOUNT EMEI (China, Buddhist)

The Leshan Buddha has fallen victim to pollution emanating from unbridled development in the region. In this case, the culprit has been determined to be the growing numbers of coal fired power plants located near the Giant Buddha, specifically, the toxic gases that their smokestacks spew into the air; these eventually return to the earth as acid rain. Over time, the Buddha's nose has turned black and the curls of his hair have begun to fall from his head.
2.LONGMEN GROTTOES (China, Buddhist)

Crevices across the rock base are causing instability and have resulted in the collapse of some niches and the destruction of their contents. This process has been greatly accelerated by increased saline sediments resulting from acid rain, a major problem across much of China.
The Chinese government put a lot of effort into this environmental issue.

For example, the government has begun to shut down hundreds of inefficient coal-run plants. Since plants are required to meet certain standards, as well as install SO2 monitoring systems, some of them had to install a more environmentally friendly production method.

Also experts said cities should set a long-term goal of preventing acid rain from persisting.
Apart from government agencies and experts, we citizens should also be responsible for this environment problem. The first step we should take is to understand the problem. We should search more information about this environmental issue, such as the causes of acid rain and how can we prevent its occurrence. The second step is that we should find out a solution to help prevent the occurrence acid rain. The most effective solution is to conserve energy since acid rain is usually caused by the emission of pollutants which are created during the energy production. There are some ways which we can do to stop acid rain. - Turn off the light and electrical equipment when we are not using it.

- Use equipment that uses less electricity. For example, we can buy those refrigerators with an Energy Label.

- Try to limit the use of air conditioning.

- Take more public transportation or in order to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides produced by driving cars.
The third step we should do is to influence others. It is good for us to educate our friends and parents about this environmental issue. In this way, more citizens will be aware of the danger of acid rain and then they join together to tackle it. Between 1983 and 2005 the acid rain-polluted area has extended greatly to about 1.5 million square kilometres in China. Over 10 percent cities in 20 provinces have been affected by acid rain so far.The figure below shows the development of China’s acid rain profile during the past three decades. Acid Rain in China
Acid Rain Issue in China
Reference Situation in China
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