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A World of Explorations

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Jessica Seidenberg

on 11 February 2013

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Transcript of A World of Explorations

Hernando Cortez sailed for Cuba on the ship of Diego Velazquez in 1504. Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) was a Portuguese royal prince, soldier, and patron of explorers. Henry sent many sailing expeditions down Africa's west coast, but did not go on them himself. Thanks to Prince Henry's patronage, Portuguese ships sailed to the Madeira Islands (Joao Goncalves Zarco, 1420), rounded Cape Bojador (Eannes, 1434), sailed to Cape Blanc (Nuno Tristao, 1441), sailed around Cap Vert (1455), and went as far as the Gambia River (Cadamosto, 1456) and Cape Palmas (Gomes, 1459-1460). Spain These expeditions were sent to create much-needed maps of the West African coast, to defeat the Muslims, to spread Christianity, and to establish trade routes. Prince Henry helped begin the Great Age of Discovery that lasted from the 1400's to the early 1500's. Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) Was a Portuguese explorer who discovered an ocean route from Portugal to the East. Vasco da Gama sailed from Lisbon, Portugal on July 8, 1497 with the hopes of discovering a route around Africa to India. At the time, many people thought that da Gama's trip would be impossible, because it was assumed that the Indian Ocean was not connected to any other seas. Da Gama's patron was King Manuel I of Portugal. Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492.
Four voyages: (1492–93, 1493–96, 1498–1500, and 1502–04)
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain sponsored his voyage.
Columbus was hoping to find a quick route to Asia (specifically China) in order to trade goods like spices.
He crossed the Atlantic Ocean and ended up in what the Europeans then called The New World (the Americas)
He believed he had landed in India and called the Native Americans the Indians.
Columbus landed in San Salvador and believed he had found a shorter route to India. Da Gama rounded Africa's Cape of Good Hope on November 22, and continued on to India. After many stops in Africa, and problems with Muslim traders who did not want interference in their profitable trade routes. Da Gama reached Calicut, India on May 20, 1498. At first, da Gama and his trading were well-received, but this did not last for long. Da Gama left India on August 29, 1498, after he was told he would have to pay a large tax and leave all of his trading goods behind. When he left, da Gama took his goods with him along with Indian hostages. Bahamas The Europeans then began to Colonize in the Americas.
Columbus first befriended the Native Americans who were amazed by their advancements.
However, as soon as the Europeans began settling there the Natives were driven out of their homes.
The Spanish brought disease that the Natives were not immune to and died of easily.
Spanish spread their culture and religious beliefs.
Both sides often clashed, both having their own advantages, and many wars and massacres took place.
Native Americans Genocide and Trail of Tears (1830s) Discovered the Philippine Islands and places in South America (Guam).
280 men set sail with him in 1519 and only 35 returned.
Went through Atlantic Ocean to South America and then all the way around through the Pacific until the Mactan and died.
Magellan sometimes attacked the natives and that’s how he died in the Philippine island of Mactan.
Magellan’s largest impact on natives was the spread of Christianity. I' This is Mactan where Magellan died in the Philippines. Only 35 of the men in Magellan's original crew returned. Traveled through the Atlantic ocean in to the Pacific Hernando Cortez set sail from his home country of Spain for Cuba in 1504 ce on the ship of Diego Velasquez. Hernando Cortez was a conquistador who represented the country of Spain. He set out on an expedition from Cuba in 1519, with the hopes of expanding the Spanish Empire. He also hoped to discover rich lands filled with gold and silver. He is best known for taking over the Aztec capitol of Tenochtitlan and then bringing down the entire empire in 1521 ce with an army of only about 500 men. Cortez explored much of Central America in search of a strait from the Atlantic to the Pacific. He was unsuccessful, however he did discover and name California. Hernando Cortez took siege of Tenochtitlan for three months before it fell. He then secured control over Mexico by inflicting cruelty on the natives, forcing many of them into slavery, and killing off large portions of the population unintentionally by spreading western diseases such as smallpox to the indigenous peoples. Francisco Pizarro was a conquistador who sailed for Spain. In 1513, he accompanied Vasco Nunez de Balboa in his exploration of the South American coast. Pizarro landed in Peru in 1532. He is best known for "discovering" and conquering the Inca empire. Like all conquistadors, Pizarro explored to claim lands for Spain, and even more, to find riches for himself. Furthermore, similar to Hernando Cortes, Pizarro did not act kindly towards the peoples he conquered. Pizzaro destroyed the authoritative system of the Inca empire, killing off most of the native leaders. He is very well known for holding the last Inca Emperor, Atahualpa, for ransom and then killing off the leader when the ransom was delivered. Further, Pizarro was abusive of the Inca people, forcing them into slavery and killing off many of them as they came in contact with smallpox, measles, mumps, and other western diseases. Pizarro never exactly stopped exploring. He died(well, he was assassinated) in Lima, Peru in 1541. Bartolomeu Diaz was a Portuguese explorer who set out to discover a route around Africa to the Indian Ocean in the year 1478. Dias is best known for his voyage around the Cape of Good Hope, Africa. In 1488, he arrived back in Portugal. His voyage led to the establishment of trade routes that stretched directly from Europe to Asia. Dias' expedition provided valuable information for future explorers. In 1497, Dias accompanied Vasco De Gama on his expedition to India. In 1500, Dias accompanied Pedro Alvares Cabaral on an expedition headed westward, but was killed in a violent storm storm before the expedition could come to a close. Jacques Cartier Jacques' Journey Country Represented: France
Time Of Voyage(s): 1534, 1535, & 1541
Name of Places Explored: The Americas (specifically along the eastern side of Canada), Explored the St. Lawrence River (which France claimed as their land) Jacques Discoveries Places Discovered/Explored: Explored the Americas, especially in Brazil, before making three major North American voyages. On his first voyage, Cartier was sent by King Francis I to the New World in search of riches and a new route to Asia in 1534. He explored the St. Lawrence river which allowed France claim the lands (these lands would eventually become Canada). He explored the west coast of Newfoundland, and discovered Prince Edward Island too. On Cartier’s second voyage, in 1535, he and his men established a base in Quebec. On Cartier’s third voyage, in 1541, he went back up near Quebec where it was said that gold and diamonds were to be found. While on the trip, Cartier abandoned the base and sailed back towards France. On the way, he stopped at Newfoundland, where he met up with colonists. The leader told Cartier to go back to Quebec. Rather then going back to Quebec, he sailed (again) back towards France.

Impact on the Native population: While on his second voyage, in Montreal, he was welcomed by the Iroquois. The Iroquois told Cartier and his men about rivers west, where gold, silver, copper and spices could be found. In the end, Cartier captured a few of the chiefs of the tribe to help his on his voyage.
Reasons for Exploration: To gain land & riches for the King of France, and to increase his own personal wealth Jacques' First Two Voyages Ferdinand Magellan
Spain also sponsored the voyage of Magellan, although he was a Portuguese explorer.
Circumnavigation- 1519-1521
He was in search of spices and trade routes for his country (“Spice Islands”).
Attempted to continue Columbus’s goal of establishing a western route to Asian waters.
Ferdinand Magellan made it to the Pacific Ocean and died in the Mactan Islands.
First to circumnavigate the earth. James Cook France New World Canada United Kingdom
(Great Britain) Cook's Journey Country Represented: Great Britain
Time Of Voyage(s): 1768-1771, 1772-1775, 1777
Name of Places Explored: Explored Plymouth and Tahiti where observations and charts of the island were made, the group collected natural history specimens as well. Explored Austria and New Zealand, Pacific coast of North America and Siberia, and traveled to Hawaii too. Cook's Discoveries Places Discovered/Explored: On his first voyage, sailed from Plymouth near Cape Horn, and reached Tahiti, and then New Zealand. He explored various capes and bays including Stingray Bay (Botany Bay), Bustard Bay, Cape Townshend, Cape York, etc. On his second voyage, he explored Australia around February of 1773, and made his way to Bruny Island, sailed around Tasman Peninsula and went up the east coast to Flinders Island, but failed to reach Point Hicks before continuing to New Zealand. On Cook’s third voyage, he visited Adventure Bay on his way to New Zealand and Tahiti once more. He explored the Pacific coasts of North America and Siberia, and ended in the Sandwich Islands of Hawaii.
Impact on the Native Population: Cook has no real interaction with native people of the places where he explored.
Reasons for Exploration: For his first voyage, the Royal Society and the Admiralty chose for Cook; he was sent to the South Seas to observe the transit of Venus. His position was from moved from master to lieutenant and was commander of the Endeavour Bark. Cook's Voyages First voyage shown in red
Second voyage shown in green
Third voyage shown in blue
Dashed blue line is the voyage of cook’s crew members after his death in 1779 Francis Drake
(1540 –1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan Era.
By the 1560s, Francis Drake was given command of his own ship, the Judith. With a small fleet, Drake sailed to Africa to engage in the slave trade.
In 1572, Francis Drake got a privateer's commission from Queen Elizabeth I. In that same year, he went on his first independent voyage to Panama. He planned to attack the town of Nombre de Dios, a drop-off point for Spanish ships bringing silver and gold from Peru. With two ships and a crew of 73 men, Drake captured the town. However, he was seriously wounded during the raid, so he and his men withdrew without much loot.
With the success of the Panama expedition, Queen Elizabeth sent Francis Drake out against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of South America in November 1577. He was accompanied by two other men, John Wynter and Thomas Doughty.
Francis Drake then led the fleet into the Strait of Magellan to reach the Pacific Ocean.
Drake remained in his flagship, The Golden Hind, and sailed up the coasts of Chile and Peru, plundering unprotected Spanish merchant ships full of gold and silver. Drake landed off the coast of California, claiming it for Queen Elizabeth. After fixing his ship and getting food supplies, he set sail across the Pacific, through the Indian Ocean and around Cape of Good Hope back to England, landing at Plymouth in 1580. Drake had become the first Englishman to circumnavigate the world. The treasure he captured made him a wealthy man, and the Queen knighted him in 1581. Later that year, he was elected to the House of Commons.
In 1588, Sir Francis Drake was appointed vice admiral of the English Navy, under Lord Charles Howard. On July 21, 130 ships of the Spanish Armada entered the English Channel in a crescent formation. The English fleet sailed out to meet them. For several days, the English fleet used its superior speed and maneuverability to harass the Armada with long-range cannon fire.
In 1589, Queen Elizabeth ordered Sir Francis Drake to seek out and destroy any remaining ships of the Armada, and help Portuguese rebels in Lisbon fighting against the Spanish occupiers. The expedition was a disaster. Drake lost 20 ships and more than 12,000 men. Drake returned home and for the next several years, busied himself with duties as mayor of Plymouth. California In 1595, the queen once again called on Sir Francis Drake to wage war on Spain. Traveling with Drake was his cousin, John Hawkins. They were supposed to capture Spain's treasure supply in Panama, in hopes of cutting off revenue and ending the war. After a few skirmishes in the Caribbean, Drake's fleet moved farther west and anchored off the coast of Portobello, Panama. There, Drake contracted dysentery and on January 28, 1596, died of a fever. He was buried in a lead coffin at sea near Portobello, Panama. Francis Drake travel routes/voyages Juan Ponce de Leon
(1474- 1521) Juan Ponce de León was a Spanish explorer and conquistador.
He led a European expedition to discover the mythical fountain of youth, instead finding the southeast coast of what would become the United States Florida.
Years later, after suppressing an Indian uprising in Hispaniola (comprising modern-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Ponce de León was named the provincial governor of the eastern part of the country.
In 1508 Ponce de León was officially sent by the Spanish crown to explore the island. He took 50 soldiers with him on a single ship and explored the island, settling near what is now San Juan. A year later, he returned to Hispaniola, having found much gold but running short on supplies, and was named governor of Puerto Rico. Peru In 1513 Ponce de León led a private expedition to Bimini from Puerto Rico. In a month's time, he and his men landed on the coast of Florida instead. He did not initially realize that he was on the mainland of North America and instead thought he had landed on another island. He named the region Florida because he discovered it at Easter time (Spanish: Pascua Florida) and because its vegetation was lush and floral.
After exploring the coast, he returned to Puerto Rico, which he found roiling with a native uprising. Ponce de León soon left for Spain, where he was named military governor of Bimini and Florida and secured permission to colonize those regions. He was also ordered to organize an army to subdue the native uprising on Puerto Rico, which had continued in his absence. He left for Puerto Rico in May 1515 with his small fleet.
Accounts of the battle that ensued after his arrival are spotty, but in 1521, Ponce de León sailed again for Florida with two ships and 200 men, intent on settling the land. This time, though, he was wounded by an arrow during an Indian attack, after which he and his colonists sailed to Cuba, where he soon died of the wound.
Juan Ponce de León travel route/voyages China Zheng He
Zheng He (1371–1433) was from China and formerly known as Cheng Ho, was a Muslim Hui-Chinese court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral.
He was rasied a Muslim, Zheng started to study the teachings of Islam at an early age. Both Zheng He's father and grandfather had made the pilgrimage to Mecca, and so were quite familiar with distant lands.
Zheng He was captured by Ming Dynasty forces during their military cleansing of the remnants of the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) in Yunnan, around 1381. He was taken to Nanjing, where he was castrated and entered into imperial service. He was then sent to present-day Beijing to serve in the palace of Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan, fourth son of the founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty.
Zheng fought on the side of Prince Zhu Di, accompanying him on countless campaigns and battles throughout China. Amassing one victory after another, Zheng He was instrumental in Zhu Di's seizure of imperial power.
Shortly after Zhu Di ascended the throne as the Yongle Emperor, he assigned Zheng He to the area of maritime affairs. Zheng He first conducted an exhaustive study of existing nautical charts, celestial navigation, eastern and western almanacs, astronomy and geography, marine sciences, piloting, and shipbuilding and repair.
Between the third year of the Yongle reign period (1405) and the eighth year of the Xuande reign period (1433), Zheng He led seven great western maritime expeditions, traversing the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean into the Persian Gulf and Red Sea, and reaching as far west as the east coast of Africa.
There is evidence of Zheng He's visits in over thirty Asian and African countries and regions. These seven voyages, unprecedented in size, organization, navigational technology, and range, demonstrated not only the power and wealth of the Ming Dynasty, but also Zheng He's extraordinary command ability. "Vasco Da Gama Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2013.
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