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Unit 3 600ACE-1450ACE

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Tanya Riordan

on 25 April 2015

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Transcript of Unit 3 600ACE-1450ACE

Unit 3: 600ACE-1450ACE
General Knowledge
Time of war and conquest
Religion influenced peoples actions and everyday lives
Disease and disunity spread
China grew in wealth and dominance
Islam emerged and grew in dominance
Organized empires emerged based on trade
Byzantine
Roman Empire Collapses
Internal Issues
Germanic Tribes
Eastern half of Roman empire survives: Byzantine
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Constantine emerges as first emperor
Absolute Emperor
Hagi Sofia
Reaches peak of empire under Justinian
Expands empire
Justinian code of law
Byzantine falls to the Muslims: OTTOMANS
Slavic Empires were orthodox christian
Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia
Crusades weakened Byzantine-> Turks taking over 1453
Africa
Ghana, Malia, Songhai
Ghana
Intro to camels-> trade revolution
Land of gold
Economy Flourished
Decline:
Power struggle with Almoravid Muslim Empire
First Muslim
900's: Divine monarchy
Mali
Mansa Musa went on pilgramidge to mecca ) ISLAMIC
Made people think the Africa was country filled with Gold -> War/Conlonized
West Africa: Muslim
Founded by Sundiata Keita
Depended on Niger River for Trade
MANSA MUSA
Distributed gold to everybody
Pilgramages to Mecca
Come back and built mosques
Berbers traded salt for gold
Early converts to Muslim
More equality then other Muslims
Ibn Matuta: Scholar Went to Africa
Treated like a king everywhere
DECLINE:
Central Government cripples
Military pressure from outside forces

Songhai
Trade depended on Niger River
Sunni Ali:
Turned empire from small kingdom to largest most powerful empire in Africa
DECLINE:
Morocco invades
Swahili City States
Swahili: coasters
Language: Bantu
orignially from west to east
Arab traders arrived
Religion: Muslim communities
Ethiopia ad Egypt stayed christian
Trading port cities
Traded with Persia, India, China
Each city state ran its own government
Tanzania:
Mozambique
Malawi
DECLINE:
Portugese trade
Disrupted old trade routes
Made city states useless
China
Tang Dynasty
Confucian Ruler
Very large: 80million
Fought against Abbasids
Transportation and Communication quickened
Equal fields system
Civil Service Exam
Extreme relations with neighbors for trade and diplomatic products/contacts within central and east Asia
DECLINE:
Careless Rulers
Rebellion and Revolt
Song Dynasty
Song Taizu
Lots of Iron
High quality porcelain
Paper money
More centralized government then other dynasties
Provided Confucian education
Not as militaristic and Sui and Tang
Empire split between North and South Song:
Southern Dynasty fell in 1279AD when Mongols under Kublai Khan successfully invaded and conquered China
Mongols established Yuan Dynasty

MONGOL ERA
Ming Dynasty
Formed from the take down of Mongols
Height of Ming Empire
Zhu DI was emporor Cheng ZU
1405-1433: sent Zhenghe to lead Ming's fleets across Indian Ocean
DECLINE: Eperor Wali
Neglected his duties
Didn't care about politics
Manchurian tribal leaders saw instability and took advantage
CCOT

Continuities:
Use of Silk Road
Patriarchal Society
Migration Trade and Cultural Exchange
Wars
Religion
Buddhism
Hinduism
Christianity
Islam
Judaism
Improvements in Technology

Changes:
Population Incease
Empires

Nara
Extreme immitation of China
Vietnam
Adapted Schooling and Agricultural techniques
Tributary duties to Tang
Neo-Confucianism
Mayan
Calendar based on 0 like Persians
No one is sure reason of decline
Math, Science Medicine, Calendar
Aztec
Established warriors as elites and political leaders
Ruled by absolute power
Built Pyramids
Capital: Tenochtitlan
HUMAN SACRIFICE
sometmies cannibalism
usually sacrificed P.O.W.'s
Conquests--> population of 12 million
Roads builts like Roman Empire for easier communication and trade
Cacao beans as currency
known for their waterbone transport networks surrounding the Tenochtitlan
Inca
Professional army controlled 2,000 miles of territory
Established bureaucracy of ruling elite warriors
No personal property
Like Aztecs- had a complex system of roads for trade and communication
And practiced human sacrifice
Roads famous like Rome's
Holy Roman Empire
Feudalism
Manor lifestyle
Fiefs: Land
Lots of Vietnam taken by China
Resented China
VERY Buddhist
Science and Technology
Mongols
Gunpowder
Compass
Equal Field System
Three-Field System
Printing (paper money)
Grand Canal
Islam
Ummayads moved capital to Damasscuss
Arabs had most power-ish in Islam empire\
Abassids moved capitals ot Baghdad
much more welcoming of none Aarab muslims
Dar Araslam: Much more indirect control like Persians
Lost lots of control
EDUCATION!!! Arabic replaced greek
Ibn Sia: Medicine
Spain: Cordoba: the muslim arts!
Developed in the 7th century
Prophet: Muhammad Ali
622AD
Major religion in world
Praise Allah
Monotheistic
Salvation is won through submission
Islam: Total submission to God
Submission obtained through 5 Pillars
1.Faith
Prayer
Fast
Olms
Pilgramidge
Muslim followers read Qur'an
Jihad (the struggle) to be a better Muslism
Patriarchal
Rigid Social Movement
Lived by Sharia: Law Code
Umma: Community
Ulema: Scholar Elite
Abbassids took over in 1750: conquered by mongols
Caliphates
Leaders after Prophet
3 right caliphates
Umayyad
Ruler: Not direct descendents of Muhammad
Arabic became main language
Jizya: non-muslim tax
Corrupt
Sunnni
Abbasid
Ruler: Direct descendent of Muhammad
golden age: trade flourished
Education advances
Shi'a
Sufis:
Very tolerant
Strong relationship with God
Mongols and Islam
Genghis Khan Unites Mongols
based on merit
peasants loved him
Great Khan
Mongols spread religion through jihad
Pax Mongolia with kubali Khan
Great conqueror, horrible administrators
Spread gunpowder
Fought in Crusades
Free Trade
Kublai Khan took over Song Dynasty in China
After Genghis Khan's death, left with
Yuan in China
Ilkhata Persia
Chagatai in Central Asia
Khanate Golden Horde in Russia
Adopted Gun Powder
Yam System: Bronze passports
Rice became staple of Perisan empire because of trade
SUPERR TOLERANT (originally shaminasts)
Ottoman Empire
Mongols
Leniant and accepting of religions
Opened constantinople to Jews and Christians
Captured Mecca, Medina, Cairo, and Constantinople-> Influencial Cities
Impact
Spread cultures: Islamic and Christian
Improved trade in Asia and East Europe
Made silk road safe: Hectic during Bubonic Plague
Conquered area brought peace because leaders were usually leniant
Pax Mongolica
Paper Money
Letters of Credit
Mongol and Ottoman
Delhi Sultanate
Northern India Conversion
Afghan Turks
Sultan welcomed religion because Hindus polytheism was not appealing
Islamic leaders tried to convert Hindus
Irrigation improved, colleges funded, mosques built
Mongols attacked everything they could including Sultanate
Once Mongols left, Sultanate restored
Islamic Influences
Arrived by Trans Saharan and Sea Lanes
Adopt Islam but attain culture
Appeal: Muslims equal, and relationship with Arabs

Impact
Spread of new foods and Indutrial crops
New industry: paper manufacture
Revived Silk
rulers support the arts, maths, and science
Chinese compass for maritime trade
Gunpowder
steel for swords
Improved Astrolabe
Caligraphy
Introduced to West: Zero, Decimal, Algebra
Islamic impacs on Persia, Greece, India
Persia
Ideas of Kinship
Adopted Arabic numerals
Algebra and trig
Greek
Muslim philosphers liked Plato and Aristotle
Indian Ocean Trade
Monsoon System
Summer Winds Blow Southwest
Winter Winds Blow Northeast
Super predictable
Allowed mariners to sail safely to all parts of Indian Ocean Basin
Hellenistic Rulers closesly supervised foreign trade and levied taxes on it
Diriving income from even foreign products
Bigger, Richer, and featured more diverse cultuers
Swahili coast cities
India
CHina
South East Asia
etc
NOT EUROPE
Dominted by Muslim Merchants
Generally peaceful
technolgy
Muslims: Astrolabe
China: Magnetic Compass
Islamic World: Triangular latine sail
More Muslims live in Indonesia
Malacca: tax people when they go by
Srivajaya and Swahili city states: Only possible because of Indian Ocean trade
Reliance on trade makes you very vulnerable to the peaks and troughs of economy
Trans Saharan Trade Route
Camels
Copper
Gold
Ironware
Cotton Textiles
Salt
Grains
Cloth
etc..
Religion
spread through Africa
Mostly North and West
Mansa Musa made pilgramidge to Mecca
Silk Road
Trade Goods
Mongols Controlled and protectd Route

Mongol
largest land empire in world
spread traits from other cultures
improved trade
Asia
Eastern Europe
Paper money, banking, letter roles of credit
once areas conquered a period of peace usually resulted
Controlled and taxed trade in jurisdiction
built mosques and public buildings
Economic Innovations
Economic Innovations
Zheng He's expeditions
Commercial Expansion in Indian Ocean Basin
Crusades
European response to Islam spreading
Lionhearts
Seljuk turks moved into region and sacked holy cities
made it hard for Christians
Byzantines felt the threat
called for help
Pope Urban 2nd: wanted to Unite Europe
Liberate Jerusalem
pilgramidges
Knights: Peasants
Miraculously successful first time
Took Jeruslam
THIRD CRUSADE
Egyptian Sultan: Muslim )Salidan
Sought to expand by taking demascus
FOURTH
Pheonecians made huge boats
World Economy
Had a network of systems, but only to Asia Africa and Europe
China and Western Europe trade brought new luxuries to world
Money System
Paper Money: China and Mongols
Also used Coins
Serfdom was commonly used as money in Midevil which was for feudalism
Religions
Schism
Arabs
Spread of Islam: made 5 pillars: Followed Sharia
Trade: Part of Indian Ocean trade; Traded with China; Swahili coast
Slavery: Captured Africans; Forced them to bondage


Origin: Indo-Europeans who migrated to Middle East
Trade: Gained control of mediterranean after conquering many different socieites; responsible for Europe's interest in long-distance trade
Invasions: Invaded Byzantine (Constantinople), India (Intoduced Islam to India)
Turks
Vikings
Effects on Europe: Conquered most of coastal Europe
Development of Feudal System
Established Trade Routes
Cultural Polytheistic Religion: Agricultural based economy; warrior state
Scandinavia (Nordic Peoples): establish communities in Scotland, France, Eastern Europe
Bubonic Plague
killed lots of people
Strengthened Religion
Christianity
Islam
Christians
Muslims
Jews
Christians didn't like jews
Jews worked at banks
made money off christians
Christians persecuted jews in Crusades
Muslims didn't like Jews
Mob stormed royal palace in Granada
Jews tried to over through Muslims
Had to pay tax if non muslim under muslim rule: Jizya
Didn't like eachother
Crusades
La Convivencia- The Co-existance Spain
Period of time where they all lived in spain in peace
Feudalism
Gender Roles
Europe
Patriarchal
Like servents to men
Women in manor had more leisure time but still inferor
China
Very Patriarchal
Confucianism
Foot binding
Female Elites: more poewr
Africa
Patriarchal
Had more power than other women around world
Islam
Under God's eyes, equal
No choice in marriage
Islamic ideals reinforced dominance of men
Timbuktu
Constantinople
Unhygenic
Smaller Wars
Slightly longer life expectency: less wars
Feudalism: Lords to Vassals
Lords were vassals to kings
Peasants worked for vassals
no social class change
Kieven Rus
In land area, the largest single European state of the postclassical era
880s-1240
Represents an early example of the slow trend toward centralization of political and territorial expansion that characterized trends in European monarchy inlater centuries
Magna Carta
The principle of limited monarchy and representative bodies was etablished
Aristocratic checks on royal powr, codified in the Magna Carta of the 13th century British Isles, set a precedent for the future diminution of the power of the mnarchs we associate with the rise of modern democracy
100 Years War
This protracted conflict had the broad effect of strengthening monarchy in ways that would be replaced and magnified in the period 1450-1750
Joan of Arc was a figure in this war
teen who was in control of the french
Compare & Contrast
Both Inca and Roman empire were famous for extensive and centrally planned imperial road networks
Russia
Eastern Orthodox
-> Strengthened the power of tsars
Influenced by Byzantium
Crusades-> Growth of Italian city states
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