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GRAMMAR

Past tense contrast
by

Marcela Macková

on 26 April 2013

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Transcript of GRAMMAR

Present Past An action started and finished
at a specfic time in the past. A series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen one after another. To describe a habit which stopped in the past. To describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. Signal words yesterday last night two weeks ago in 2005 the day before yesterday in summer Structure interrogative affirmative negative S + V +... - ed 2nd column watched
worked
played met
brought
drove I worked in the garden two days ago.

Yesterday I saw the film S + didn´t + V (base) + ... I didn´t play tennis yesterday.

Holidays didn´t begin last Friday. (WH) Did + S + V (base) + ... Did you visit your friend?

Where did you spend last weekend? Signal words while from ... till when all still as long as Structure interrogative affirmative negative S + was/were + V-ing +... I was reading a book for two hours. S + was/were + not + V-ing + ... They were not watching TV all night. (WH) Was/were + S + V-ing +... Why was he speaking to her so long. Duration in the past. Interrupted actions in progress in the past. Actions in progress at the same time in the past. Irritation (with "always") in the past. Pronunciation Exceptions when adding 'ing' :

- silent e is dropped (but: does not apply for -ee)
Example: come - coming
but: agree - agreeing

- after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled
Example: sit - sitting

- final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English)
Example: travel - travelling

- final ie becomes y.
Example: lie - lying Past simple
vs.
Past continuous
vs.
Past perfect Completed Action Before Something in the Past - the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past. Structure Signal words We also use the past perfect simple for an action that ended a long time before the point of time that we refer to. after because as soon as until by the time that interrogative affirmative negative (WH) Had + S + V + ... ? - ed Had she already left the house when you phoned. S + had + V + ... - 3rd column - ed When the police arrived at the house, the burglar had escaped. S + had + not + V + ... I was sure, I hadn´t met him before. - 3rd column - ed The young professor...........1...........(work) in his workshop in a narrow street in Boston. He was totally absorbed in his strange machine. Suddenly he ........2.........(hear) an almost inaudible sound the first sound ever transmitted through a wire. The machine ..........3.........(be) the very first telephone and the young man was Alexander Graham Bell. His grandfather ............4..........(invent) a system to help people with speech problems. Alexander´s father..........5..............(also, write) several books on how to speak correctly. While he...........6...........(work) in London he .........7.........(meet) two men who would play an important role in his life. After his brothers´death he and his parents ..........8...........(leave) the country and .........9...........(move) to Canada. Alexander............10............(teach) to a tribe of Mohawk Indians. Later he was asked to come and work in the USA. Alexander was very happy to move to Boston and continue the work he ............11..............(start) in Britain. He ...........12...........(become) so successful that he soon ...........13.............(open) his own school. Than, two years later, he ..........14.........(agree) to give private lessons to a young boy whose family..........15.........(allow) him to use their basement as a workshop. At that time he had another student who greatly..............16...............(influence) his life. She was a young girl who...........17............(lose) her hearing and the ability to speak because of a childhood illness. Four years later they got married. He.............18................(continue) his experiments with sound vibrations. Alexander............19...........(spend) so much time and energy on his inventions. He ..........20..........(meet) Professor John Henry who ..........21.............(realise) immediately that Alexander ..........22....................(make) an amazing discovery and ..........23...............(encourage) him to continue with his experiments. In 1875 when Alexander.............24.............(hear) the first sound transmitted over his machine, he..........25...............(realise) that he..........26.....................(finally, achieve) his goal. On his 29th birthday he ............27................(register) his invention with the patent office. - 3rd column
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