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GRAMMAR

Past tense contrast
by

Marcela Macková

on 2 March 2017

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Transcript of GRAMMAR

Present
Past
An action started and finished
at a specfic time in the past.
A series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen one after another.
To describe a habit which stopped in the past.
To describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true.
Signal words
yesterday
last night
two weeks ago
in 2005
the day before yesterday
in summer
Structure
interrogative
affirmative
negative
S + V +...
- ed
2nd column
watched
worked
played
met
brought
drove
I
worked
in the garden two days ago.

Yesterday I
saw
the film
S + didn´t + V (base) + ...
I
didn´t play
tennis yesterday.

Holidays
didn´t

begin
last Friday.
(WH) Did + S + V (base) + ...
Did
you
visit
your friend?

Where

did
you
spend
last weekend?
Signal words
while
from ... till
when
all
still
as long as
Structure
interrogative
affirmative
negative
S + was/were + V-ing +...
I
was reading
a book for two hours.
S + was/were + not + V-ing + ...
They
were not

watching
TV all night.
(WH) Was/were + S + V-ing +...
Why

was
he
speaking

to her so long.
Duration in the past.
Interrupted actions in progress in the past.
Actions in progress at the same time in the past.
Irritation (with "always") in the past.
Pronunciation
Exceptions when adding 'ing' :

- silent
e is dropped
(but: does not apply for -ee)
Example: come - coming
but: agree - agreeing

-
after a short, stressed vowel
, the final consonant is doubled
Example: sit - sitting

-
final l
is always doubled in British English (not in American English)
Example: travel - travelling

-
final ie
becomes y.
Example: lie - lying
Past simple
vs.
Past continuous
vs.
Past perfect
Completed Action Before Something in the Past - the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
Structure
Signal words
We also use the past perfect simple for an action that ended a long time before the point of time that we refer to.
after
because
as soon as
until
by the time that
interrogative
affirmative
negative
(WH) Had + S + V + ... ?
- ed
Had
she already
left
the house when you phoned.
S + had + V + ...
- 3rd column
- ed
When the police arrived at the house, the burglar
had escaped
.
S + had + not + V + ...
I was sure, I
hadn´t met
him before.
- 3rd column
- ed
The young professor...........
1
...........(work) in his workshop in a narrow street in Boston. He was totally absorbed in his strange machine. Suddenly he ........
2
.........(hear) an almost inaudible sound the first sound ever transmitted through a wire. The machine ..........
3
.........(be) the very first telephone and the young man was Alexander Graham Bell. His grandfather ............
4
..........(invent) a system to help people with speech problems. Alexander´s father..........
5
..............(also, write) several books on how to speak correctly. While he...........
6
...........(work) in London he .........
7
.........(meet) two men who would play an important role in his life.
After his brothers´death he and his parents ..........
8
...........(leave) the country and .........
9
...........(move) to Canada. Alexander............
10
............(teach) to a tribe of Mohawk Indians. Later he was asked to come and work in the USA. Alexander was very happy to move to Boston and continue the work he ............
11
..............(start) in Britain. He ...........
12
...........(become) so successful that he soon ...........
13
.............(open) his own school. Than, two years later, he ..........
14
.........(agree) to give private lessons to a young boy whose family..........
15
.........(allow) him to use their basement as a workshop. At that time he had another student who greatly..............
16
...............(influence) his life. She was a young girl who...........
17
............(lose) her hearing and the ability to speak because of a childhood illness. Four years later they got married.
He.............
18
................(continue) his experiments with sound vibrations. Alexander............
19
...........(spend) so much time and energy on his inventions. He ..........
20
..........(meet) Professor John Henry who ..........
21
.............(realise) immediately that Alexander ..........
22
....................(make) an amazing discovery and ..........
23
...............(encourage) him to continue with his experiments. In 1875 when Alexander.............
24
.............(hear) the first sound transmitted over his machine, he..........
25
...............(realise) that he..........
26
.....................(finally, achieve) his goal. On his 29th birthday he ............
27
................(register) his invention with the patent office.
- 3rd column
Full transcript