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public Presentations

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Lydia Yousry

on 14 August 2016

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Transcript of public Presentations

Public Presentations
Deciding to Speak
Step 1: Audience Information Sources
Step 2: Speech Purposes
Why this course?
Top 13 list of Americans fears
13. The dark
12. Going to the doctor
11. Crowds
10. Thunder and lightning
9. Dogs
8. Flying on an airplane
7. mice
6. needles and getting shots
5. Spiders and insects
4. Being closed in a small space
3. Heights
1. Snakes
Did you know...?
Estimated 75% of all people experience some degree of anxiety/nervousness when public speaking.
Guess what...
Course Outlines:
Activity: What are you afraid of the most!
Deciding to Speak
Preparing Your Speech
Delivering Your Speech
Publicizing Your Speech
Activity: Make a Wish
Why Public Speaking Matters ...
A large part of life and career success involves knowing how to speak in front of groups.

Why? Because speaking makes you visible. Speaking makes you memorable.
Company Files
Other Speakers
Reference sources
Person who invited you
To Inform
To Persuade
To Entertain
Step 3: The Proactive Approach
Personal Paybacks and Company Paybacks
Think Before You Speak
Who is the audience?
What is the purpose of the speech?
What’s in it for me?
What’s in it for my company?
What’s the bottom line?

The Context of Your Speech
Current events
Organizational actions
Life events
The Principal Objective
The single, overriding objective of a speech; what the speaker wants the audience to think or do differently as a result of his or her speech.

Overcoming Fear of Public Speaking
Activity: pollution presentation
Story Telling Technique
Preparing Your Presentation
Choosing a Topic
The Wading-In Research Method

1. Discover what you know.
2. Discover what experts know.
3. Discover what information systems can provide.

A three-step research method:
Free Writing
Free Listing
The Thesis
The central focal point of a speech, the “bottom line”; the essence.

Write Outlines
Why an Outline?

1. Audience expects order
2. Can make your speechwriting much easier

Two reasons:
External Structure

a. Attention getter
b. Need to know
c. Thesis
d. Preview

a. A summary of your main points
b. A memorable closer

I. Introduction
II. Body
III. Conclusion
Attention Getters
Come in different sizes and shapes, such as:

Appear at the beginning of a speech

- Short stories.
— Hypothetical situations.
— Startling statistics.
— Humor.
— Demonstrations.
Establishing the Need to Know
Refer to the audience analysis you did earlier.
Ask yourself:

— How does the topic affect their lives?
— What do they think about the topic?

State directly as the central point of your speech
One sentence in length

Techniques for Developing the Thesis
Internal Structure
Internal Structuring Techniques
Strong starts and ends
Parallel construction

— Introduction: 15%
— Body: 75%
— Conclusion: 10%
Prepare Visuals
Organize Material
Deliver your presentation
Respond to Questions
Deliver Presentations
challenge Your Fear
F  Forget
E  Everything
A  And
R  Run

What do you think?
Presentation Vs. Conversation
Similarities :
Organize your thoughts
Tailor your message to the audience
Telling a story for maximum impact
Adapting to listener feedback

More structured
Usually time limited
Questions at end
Requires more formal language
No slang, jargon or bad grammar
Requires more formal delivery
No vocalized pauses – “uh”, “ah”, “um”

Participating In and Conducting a Meeting
Common Complaints About Meetings:
Unclear purpose.
Key people are no-shows.
Discussion gets off track.
Nothing accomplished.
Predetermined outcome.
Participants either dominate, argue, or don’t contribute.
No follow-up on decisions or assignments.

The Process of Meetings
Participating In and Conducting a Meeting
How to Prepare for a Meeting
Make sure that the group know the purpose.
Rate each agenda item.
Construct a relevant and coherent agenda.
Consider scheduling proactive meetings designed to offer innovative ideas rather than meetings reacting to current problems.
Schedule the meeting.
Delegate meeting tasks and clearly specify members' roles.
Send meeting documents to participants with enough time for adequate review.
Ensure that meeting documents are polished and complete

Guidelines for Managing Meetings
Start and end on time.
Take responsibility for the progress and outcome.
Maintain order and focus.
Keep the discussion on track.
Allow disagreements but don’t let them get out of control.
Take notes.
Keep track of assignments so you can follow up.

Meeting stages
Settle to task

Three R’s for Meeting Participants
Be ready, respectful, and receptive!

Guidelines for Participating in Meetings
Come prepared.
Deal with conflict.
Be polite.
Arrive on time.
Be clear and concise.
Accept defeat.

How to Run an effective Meeting
Review the agenda at the beginning of the meeting.
Be aware of personality types and adjust your interactions accordingly.
Respect participants' ideas.
Enrich and deepen discussions to avoid rushing to a decision.
Seek the root causes of a problem instead of focusing on symptoms.
Discuss and evaluate all options.
Challenge critical participants to offer solutions
Allow participants to question agenda items.

Evaluating & Closing
closing a meeting
Look for an opportunity to summarize the proceedings.
Avoid forcing a decision on issues that are still “undecided.”
Repeat the list of tasks assigned and the people who are responsible for completing them.
Keep the atmosphere positive.
Be open to adopting new ideas.
Credit individuals who present new ideas.
Summarize your notes and action items.

Preparing for a meeting
Determine need for meeting
establish meeting goal
distribute an agenda
facilitate a meeting
Body Language
To better understand ones own use of body language
To better understand other peoples body language
To use body language as an advantage in meeting situations.

Body language is the way that we hold and move our bodies when we are giving or receiving information. There are two broad types of body language: open body language and closed body language.
What is Body Language?
The Vocabulary Of Body Language
Positive Body Language
Negative Body Language
Relaxed posture
Arms relaxed
Good eye contact
Nodding agreement
Taking notes
Smiling/adding humor
Leaning closer
Gesturing warmly
Body tense
Arms folded in front
Hand on face
Fidgeting -
Arms behind head, leaning back
Negative facial expressions
Reading Body Language


In responsive mode, OPEN/FORWARD the person is actively accepting. This is the time to close the sale, ask for agreement.
leaning forward, open body, open arms, open hands
(sprint position), open legs, feet under chair, on toes, leaning forward
closes papers, pen down, hands flat on table
In reflective mode, OPEN/BACK, people are interested and receptive but not actively accepting. Trying to close the sale or asking for agreement now may drive them away into fugitive mode. This is the time to present further facts and incentives. It may also be a good time to keep quiet and let them think.
head tilted, lots of eye contact, nodding, high blink rate
sucks glasses/pencil, strokes chin, looks up & right, legs crossed in 4 pos(ankleonknee)
(standing) arms behind back, smile, open feet
In fugitive mode, CLOSED/BACK, people are trying to escape physically through the door or mentally into boredom. This is the time to spark interest in any way you can, even irrelevant to the message.

(standing) will see feet pointing in, hands clenched
staring into space, slumped posture, doodling, foot tapping
feet towards door, looking around, buttoning jacket
/moving back , arms folded, legs crossed 11 pos (thigh on knee), head down, frown


Finally, in combative mode, CLOSED/FORWARD, there is active resistance. This is the time to defuse anger, avoid contradiction and outright argument and to steer them into reflective mode
finger tapping, foot tapping, staring
forwards, finger pointing, fists clenched
DEFIANT (standing)
, hands on hips, frown
LYING touches
face, hand over mouth, pulls ear, eyes down, glances at you, shifts in seat, looks down and to left
Plan to take control
When planning your presentation, you will need to:

identify when questions will be invited in your talk and plan to inform your audience of this;
plan to leave plenty of time for questions so that the audience doesn’t feel rushed
prepare prompts for questions that are open and straightforward: “That’s the end of my presentation. I would now like to stop and take questions from the audience”.

As a further part of your planning you may decide to:

define the topics for discussion: “Have you any questions on the four principles that I’ve outlined?”;
avoid answering questions that fall outside of the remit of your talk: “I’m afraid that really falls outside of my objectives for today’s presentation. Perhaps we can resume discussion of that particular point later?”
Responding to questions
Step One - Listen
Step Two - Understand
Step Three - Communicate and involve
Step Four - Respond
Allow follow-up questions
Things to avoid
Making a second ‘mini’ presentation
Defensive answers
Handling difficult questions
It is important not to start responding to a difficult question before you have thought about the answer. Repeating the question and asking for clarification will help create some space for your thoughts.

suggest that you’ll come back to the topic later (but don’t forget to do this).
If you are not sure ....
Sometimes questions are too difficult to answer. Don’t worry about admitting that you don’t know something or haven’t considered an alternative approach. An enthusiastic “That’s an interesting idea, I’d not thought of that” is much more positive than a mumbled “I don’t know ”.
Occasionally, questions will fall outside of the remit of your talk and it would be too much of a diversion to tackle them in front of the whole audience. Respond positively to any such questions and suggest that they best be tackled by a quick chat after the event.
Deliver a Good Presentation
Diagnose your presenter type
1. The Coach
Is an energetic and personable speaker, who’s great at connecting and engaging people by doing and role-plays.

The Coach can quickly lose passion and enthusiasm with a low energy audience. They have a tendency to talk more than listen.
2. The Inventor
Typically the last person to volunteer to make a public presentation,
the Inventor is very good at connecting ideas for people and building logical sequences.
They are usually much more comfortable once finished and working through a Q&A.
The Inventor has difficulty holding large quantities of information in their head
3. The Counselor
who can use words very well who likes to talk about ideas.
The Counselor has an accurate and organized talk track, and a logical sequence that’s easy to follow.
They can move easily between big picture and detail.
The Counselor can make the same presentation to an empty room as a large audience.
They may fail to connect to and engage with the audience.

4. The Storyteller
A natural storyteller who speaks with feeling and rhythm.
They can win an audience over easily by using powerful and emotional words
Typically organized around what needs to get done. ]
They add depth and detail through story and experience.
5. The Teacher
Can easily explain complex ideas .
They use a lot of figures of speech and metaphors. They are well structured speakers who have the ability to carry a long talk-track in their head.
The Teacher cares more about their material than the people in the audience they may disconnect from their audience, missing non-verbal cues and become distant.
6. The Coordinator
Prefers to be in the audience rather than the presenter,
they nevertheless give organized, well-structured presentations,
Their slides are visually detailed.
The Coordinator is less comfortable speaking, but prefers working through their material than in a free form Q&A environment.
They are not comfortable working off others material.
The Coordinator starts with an outline and builds key points,
Usually reflecting personal experience.

By/Lydia Yousry
Full transcript