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Benzodiazepines

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Meghan Coltrane

on 4 May 2014

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Transcript of Benzodiazepines

benzos, blues/blueys, tranx, roche’s, mother's little helpers, duck eggs (temazepam), roofies (Rohypnol®), V’s
DEA schedule IV
Not recommended during pregnancy
They act as depressants of the central nervous system (CNS).
Chlordiazepoxide (Librium®) was the first to be synthesized in 1957 and introduced into medicine in 1961.
Introduction
Benzodiazepines
Chlordiazepoxide (Libritabs, Librium)
Alprazolam (Xanax)
Clonazepam (Klonopin)
Diazepam (Valium)
Flurazepam (Dalmane)
Lorazepam (Ativan)
Temazepam (Restoril)
Flumazenil (Romazicon)
FDA approved Benzo's
anterograde amnesia
anxiety disorders
insomnia
muscle relaxant
panic disorders
preoperative apprehension & anxiety
seizure disorders
status epilpeticus
withdrawal symptoms of acute alcoholism
FDA approved indications
The Future of Benzodiazepines
perceptual distortions
difficult walking
anxiety
tension
agitation
restlessness
sleep disturbance
depression
headaches
Withdrawal symptoms
Pros
SHORT TERM
Cons
Conclusion
References
Studies
Benzos are among the most commonly prescribed depressant medications in the US today. While they are useful if used in a safe matter, they can be extremely dangerous if abused. The most common users are the elderly, and individuals with anxiety attacks or insomnia. If they are obtained any other way than by a doctor's prescription, they are considered illegal. Short-term use is considered relatively risk-free. However, a number of investigators have reported considerable ill health, both mental & physical, in long-term users.
drowsiness, fatigue
confusion, impaired thinking
altered vision, slurred speech
tremors, vertigo
nausea, constipation

LONG TERM
mood swings, hostile behavior
muscle weakness
lack of coordination
memory loss
impaired thinking & judgement
disorientation
depression
disturbing & vivid dreams
relaxation & calmness
reduced tension
feelings of well-being
induce sleep
prevent seizures
relieve muscle spasms
anesthetic (such as before surgery)
alcohol detoxification

http://tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/benzodiazepines
http://tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/benzodiazepines
Mechanism of action
EMCDDA, (2013). Benzodiazepines, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and
Drug Addiction: Retrieved from: http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/drug-profiles/benzodiazepine
Narconon Drug Information Department, (2014). Benzodiazepines are Popular Anti
Anxiety Drugs, But with Amnesia as a Side Effect and Their Involvement in Many Deaths, Are They Overrated? Narcanon International. Retrieved from: http://www.narconon.org/drug-information/benzodiazepines.html
Tulane University School of Medicine, (2013). Benzodiazepine Pharmacology
Overview, TMedWeb. Retreived from: http://tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/benzodiazepines
-Citizens Commission on Human Rights of Florida Blog, (2013). Benzodiazephines Can Cause Dementia and Other Serious Side Effects. Retrieved from http://www.cchrflorida.org/blog/benzodiazepines-can-cause-dementia-and-other-serious-side-effects/
- American Famliy Physician. (2000) Addcition: Part I. Benzodiazepines- Side Effects, Abuse Risk and Alternatives. Retrieved from http:www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0401/p2121.html
- CESAR Center for Substance Abuse Research. (2014). Benzodiazepines. Retrieved from http://www.cesar.umd.edu/cesar/drugs/benzos.asp
- The TEDS Report, (2011). Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions for Abuse of Benzodiazepines. Retrieved from www.samhsa.gov

-Safe and effective for short-term
treatment
-Long-term use is controversial due
to physical dependence and development
of tolerance
- High potential for addiction/abuse, many
believe psychotherapeutic treatment is the
best alternative to medication -
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

- Study in Florida found that among a group of
adults over 65-yrs-old,those that used benzos were
50% percent more likely to develop dementia over
a 15 year period. (multiple studies done on dementia)
- Studies show that Benzos have been used as a "date rape" drug because they can impair and even abolish functions that normally allow a person to resist or even want to resist sexual aggression/assault (mostly Rohypnol).
- Of 971,000 ER visits involving prescription drugs in 2008, nearly 21% or 194,000 involved Benzos. Xanax alone accounted for 100,000 of these visits.
- In a 2 year study, the National Institute on Drug Abuse found that 73% of heroin users also used Benzos more often than weekly.

-- Benzos often abused in combination with another drug (usually alcohol or opiates)
-- Tolerance and withdrawal symptoms occurs most often in those who have used for longer than 6 months

Meghan Coltrane and Kellyn Hedden
Full transcript