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Different Viewpoints on Chewing Gum
Transcript of Different Viewpoints on Chewing Gum
Different Viewpoints on Chewing Gum
Western Industrialized Worldview
•Marketing – Focus on health promotion/benefit
Western Industrialized Worldview
Focus is on the marketing production of health benefits
Science is associated with techonology that is not objective, neutral, or shares the same values as those of Native American decent
Earth-Based Planetary View
•Focus is on what the contents of chewing gum does to the environment
•Healing involves a relationship to the plant
•There must be harmony and balance
Leuning' Teaching Learning Principles
Chewing Gum - The good the bad and the ugly
Earth-Based Planetary View
•Impact on Ecosystem
•Impacting Sustainable resources
•Harmony and Balance between Humans and the Earth
Species Extinction Spike
Exposure to some of the materials used to remove gums can cause nervous system disorder or damage, lung & liver damage, sterility and more (Costwide Laboratory, 2007).
Chewing gum ingredients such as aspartame are link to cancer, gastric motility, and other toxic and carcinogenic to human (Campbell, 2015).
Causes Health effect when of toxic laden food are ingested (i.e. fish) (Plummer, 2014)
Chewing gum is a non-biodegradable product (Palmer, 2011).
Environmentally and economic changes:
As mentioned earlier chewing gum has many negative consequences on an environment, on our health and economically.
For instance, when an individual spits their gum on the street and the sidewalks it leads to clogging the drains, it causes issues for the city to remove it, which costs a lot of money. As mentioned in the London Launches New Campaign to Reduce Chewing Gum Litter (2014), in the UK it costs individual local authorities as much as 200,000 pounds (US $326,601) a year to clean up.
we should not wait for someone else to take an action; we can individually start which can gradually make a greater change worldwide.
Waste to resources due to the cost use in cleaning up gum waste (Chau, 2009).
Water and chemical used for cleaning gets dump into the water system (Costwide Laboratory, 2007).
Result to water supply pollution and toxic to aquatic animals (Plummer, 2014.
This in turn leads to environmental disasters including land or mud slides, extinction of species plants and animals, global warming, increase of new diseases due to wild organisms (Chakravarty et. al., 2012.
Contributes to land & water pollution (Lam, 2014).
Intentions For Action!
Nurses keep track with local/global caring without being overwhelmed by all the bad news they receive on a daily basis
News in Seattle
After hearing the news, rather than people keeping the wall clean, they started a tribute to Paris terrorist attack by re-gumming the wall.
2,350 pounds of chewing was removed from the 'Gum Wall' after 20 years.
Chicle from Manilkara chicle trees was initially used as a base for gum production however by the 1960s the massive demand for gum along with deforestation of the chicle trees made the continued use of chicle very unsustainable (Mathews, 2011).
Gum producers switched over to polyvinyl acetate which was a cheaper alternative to chicle.
Vinyl acetate used to make the polyvinyl acetate in gum base causes tumors in rats (Prevent disease, 2010) .
Damage with transit system there, they wanted to break the cycle of gum
News can be taken in different ways where you can either contribute to the entire cycle or you take the problem and find the solution for it.
Vinyl acetate, phthalates and other toxic ingredients in gum are removed off the pavement using steam and this ends up in the rivers.
The fish then eat these miniscule gum pieces and accumulate the toxins. These fish are then consumed by humans and therefore the phthalates can end up in our food chain.
With increased gum pollution there may be an increase in the overall toxic material ending up in rivers, potentially leading to extinction of fish species (Nisker, 2014).
is that chewing gum contains palm oil.
Palm oil is a vegetable oil derived from oil palm trees. The cultivation of these trees is very profitable and is causing the clearing of forests in Indonesia and Malaysia (Koh & Wilcove, 2008).
When palm oil trees are planted in a line it can cause loss of up to 90 percent of the species in that area (Edwards et al., 2014).
Malaysia had the highest degree of forest loss between 2000 and 2012.
Many of these forests were converted to palm oil plantations resulting in a huge decrease in biodiversity and loss of animals such as endangered orangutans, pygmy elephants, Sumatran rhinos, and clouded leopards (Butler, 2013).
Deforestation and encroachment of natural habitats also leads to animals moving away from the wild into cities and suburbs; carrying disease with them (Robbins, 2012).
Deforestation also leads to an overall decrease in biodiversity potentially preventing future medication from being discovered (Robbins, 2012).
Gum removal agent uses high pressure water steam and chemicals, such as Nitrogen to act as a freezing agent (Chau,2009).
Used of Palm Tree in chewing gum production contributes to mass deforestation worldwide (Asher, 2014).
Deforestation leads to destruction to natural environment, natural wildlife habitats, loss of nature’s biodiversity and in carbon emission in the atmosphere (Asher, 2014).
Resources that could be allocated to other areas of needs (i.e. health care, food and clean waster for third world countries, education, etc.)
Nursing Organization Statement on Chewing Gum
(Ecological Model Perspective)
Determinants of Health
Leuning's Teaching - Learning Principles
Nursing Organization Statements
Western Industrialized World Perspective vs. Earth-Based Planetary Perspective
Species Extinction Spike
Local - Global Awareness
Intention for Action
As Ghandi (1947) once stated,
which is why we need to start somewhere in order to see any change in the world. We are all responsible for our own actions; it is our own responsibility to dispose gum in the right bin.
As nurses we need to raise awareness of what ingredients are in the gum and how it impacts our body.
We also need to further educate individuals on how spitting gum on the sidewalk affects the environment. Also, we need to inform the community when gum is removed by the city; it tends to get washed into rivers and oceans, which then the fishes consume. It becomes toxic before the fish becomes our source of food and it can make us sick (Hickman, 2013).
Pike Place Market's gum wall cleaned for first time in 20 years
One way or another everything is connected and if you do not remove the negative sources that influence our environment than our community will gradually become a disaster. In general, in order for a nurse to take action, one needs to first identify the issue, base their research on the issue, collaborate work with nursing organizations, get in contact with the policy makers, government, and raise awareness in order to make a change.
As Dali Lama once said, “It is our collective and individual responsibility to preserve and tend to the world in which we all live.”
Raising awareness in our community is crucial in order to make changes!
“Let me live the change I want to see in the world”,
Mila Rose Tomas
Ma. Sandra Flores
Cloudy Mae DeLa Cruz
Beware of What your're Chewing !
Social Determinant of health
Antuna, M. (2015). Does gum have palm-oil in it? Retrieved from http://www.selvabeat.com/home/2015/3/13/reader-question-does-gum-have-palm-oil-in-it
Asher, C. (2014). The problem with palm oil. Curious Meerkat Newsletter. Retrieved October 28, 2015, from http://www.curiousmeerkat.co.uk/indepth/the-problem-with-palm-oil/
Blast away Cleaning (NW) Ltd. (2015, May 13). Pub Chewing Gum Removal. Retrieved November 16, 2015 from
Butler, R., A. (2013). Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest map. Retrieved from http://news.mongabay.com/2013/11/malaysia-has-the-worlds-highest deforestation-
Campbell, A. (2015). The unpopular toxic truth about chewing gum. Natural health 365. Retrieved October 29, 2015, from http://www.naturalhealth365.com/chewing-gum-bht-toxic-1608.html
Chakravarty, S., Ghosh, S.K.., Suresh, C.P., Dey, A.N., & Shukla, G. (2012). Deforestation: causes, effects and control strategies. Global perspective on Sustainable Forest Management. Retrieved November
10, 2015, from http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/36125.pdf
Chou, T. (2009). Chewing gum. Illumin: University of Southern California, 10(1). Retrieved October 28, 2015, from https://illumin.usc.edu/118/chewing-gum/
Coastwide Laboratories. (2007). Material safety data sheet: Coastwide gum off chewing gum remover freeze action. Retrieved October 28, 2015, from http://www.coastwidelabs.com/Products/MSDS/
Edwards, F. A., Edwards, D. P., Larsen, T. H., Hsu, W. W., Benedick, S., Chung, A., & ... Hamer, K. C. (2014). Does logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture alter functional diversity in a biodiversity
hotspot? Animal Conservation, 17(2), 163-173. doi:10.1111/acv.12074
Espresso Media International. (2015). Dark side of chew - Trailer. Retrieved November 16,2015, from
Hickman, M. (2013). The guilty secrets of palm oil: Are you unwittingly, contributing to the devastation of the rain forests? Independent News. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/
Koh, P. L., & Wilcove, S., D. (2008). Is oil palm agriculture really destroying tropical biodiversity? Conservation Letters, 1(2), 60-64. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2008.00011.x.
Lam, B. (2014). Chew on this: what gum has cost society in its 5,000-year history. Documentary filmmaker Andrew Nisker talks about gum’s finnish origins, the millions required to clean it up, and
Singapore’s prescription-gum industry. The Atlantic. Retrieved October, 28, 2015, from http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2014/12/chew-on-this-what-gum-has-cost-society-in-its-5000-year-history/383452/
London Launches New Campaign To Reduce Chewing Gum Litter. (2014, September 26). Malaysian Government News. Retrieved from http://libaccess.senecacollege.ca:2097/ps/i.do?id=GALE
Mathews, J.P. (2011). 'Chicle': A Chewy Story Of The Americas. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=106439600
Nisker, A. (2014, November 4). The dark side of the chew. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/sheryl_sandberg_why_we_have_too_few_women_leaders.html
Palmer, B. (2011). How green is my wintergreen?: assessing the environment impact of chewing gum. Retrieved October 28, 2015, from http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/
Plummer, S. (2014). Andrew Nisker film explores impact of trillions of tossed chewed gum. Samatitanmag. Retrieved October 28, 2015, from http://www.samaritanmag.com/features/andrew-nisker-
Prevent Disease. (2010). Most Brands of Chewing Gum Are Extremely Toxic To Your Health. Retrieved from http://preventdisease.com/news/10/122910_chewing_gum_toxic.shtml
Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO, 2006). Best Practice Guideline: Client Centred Care. Retrieved from http://rnao.ca/category/topics/client-centred-care
Registered Nurses of Ontario (2008). Environmental Cacinogens & Health Position Statement. Retrieved from: http://rnao.ca/policy/position-statements/environmental-carcinogens
Robbins, J. (2012). Intrusion in nature spurs epidemics. The New York Times, pp. 1, 6.
Vasil, A. (2014). Toronto-based director delves into gum’s sticky ecological, economic and cultural impacts. Retrieved from https://nowtoronto.com/lifestyle/ecoholic/q&a-andrew-nisker-documentary-
Sticky Situation: Cleaning Up Seattle 'Gum Wall' (Associated Press, 2015)
(Espresso Media International, 2015)
Aspartame in chewing gum is absorbed directly though the buccal mucosa of the tongue, mouth, and gums and can quickly reach the brain, so the aspartame absorbed through gum goes directly into the brain by passing the spinal cord and blood brain barrier.
Symptoms from aspartame poisoning include headache, dizziness, change in mood, vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain and cramps, change in vision, diarrhea, seizures/convulsions, memory loss, and fatigue (Prevent disease, 2010).
RNAO supports the principles of environmental protection as enshrined in Canadian law, including precautionary principle and pollution prevetions (RNAO, 2008)
Manufacturing of gum leads to large consumption of palm oil
production of palm oil requires deforestation of the rainforest which releases enormous quantities of greenhouse gas (Hickman, 2013)
RNAO has actively taken a stance toward environmental pollution and stated that they will continuously advocate for clean air and for Canada and Ontario to meet their greenhouse gas reduction obligations under the Kyoto accord (RNAO, 2008)
the Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) is actively working with other nursing organizations such as the RNAO to influence decisions affecting human health through environment and supports environmentally responsible activity in the health sector (RNAO, 2008)
International Council of Nurses
the healthy lives of people depend ultimately on the health of Planet Earth - it's soil, water, oceans , atmosphere, and biological diversity which constitute people's natural environment