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To assist with this, one of their indicators is access to health services. With this, Healthy People provides the populous with access to companies that specialize in stress and stress reduction.
http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/LHI/accessCare.aspx Background: The Nursing Student Stress & The Nursing Student Stress Relief Having supportive family, friends, and co-workers is for many individuals an important contributor to effective coping and stress hardiness.
Places to Chat/meet people
Website chat rooms
(Carole & Carol, 2010) Social Support Expressive writing involves telling a “story” about traumatic, emotionally charged, or stressful events and personal reactions.
Expressive writing, including journaling, can help people reflect on stressful events and their reactions to these events.
Such reflection is an opportunity to reform perceptions and to consider alternative ways to manage stress.
(Carole & Carol, 2010) Expressive Writing
Carole, E., & Carol, M. (2010). Health promotion throughout the lifespan. (7th ed.).
St. Louis: Mosby Elsavier. Stress Reduction Techniques Develop the skill of personal presence.
Presence is the gift of self through availability and attention to needs.
Presence means “being there” for another person. To be available to others in this way, first practice the skill of being present with yourself.
One effective way of developing this skill is through mindfulness: the ability to focus attention on what you are experiencing from moment to moment.
Mindfulness encompasses the abilities
Slowing down and bringing your full attention (thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations) to the action in which you are engaged at the moment.
The practice can be particularly useful in allowing yourself to extend the benefits of eliciting the relaxation response in more areas of your daily life. (Carole & Carol, 2010) Stress Management Strategy for Nurses In response to stress, people can feel disconnected from life's meaning and purpose, which in turn affects spiritual health and well-being.
Meeting spiritual needs may be facilitated by spiritual practice or activities that help people find meaning, purpose, and connection.
For example, individuals may choose to elicit the relaxation response through prayer.
This focused, relaxed state of mind might help them develop a spiritual perspective that can engender a shift in values and beliefs to help cope with a stressor they cannot change. (Carole & Carol, 2010) Spiritual Practice Good health and the ability to meet life's many demands and manage stress effectively require proper rest.
Insomnia can be induced by stress or other cognitive-behavioral factors, such as:
inappropriate scheduling of sleep
trying too hard to sleep
getting inadequate exercise
Keeping a sleep diary, having a regular sleep-wake cycle, and making prudent dietary changes (Carole & Carol, 2010) Sleep Hygiene Combining a healthy diet with a regular exercise routine has many health benefits and can positively affect quality of life
Regular physical activity helps people adopt a more active lifestyle as they begin to feel better physically and emotionally, thereby breaking the negative stress cycle.
These positive effects can be obtained with exercise of only moderate intensity.
For example, a brisk walk of 30 to 60 minutes, 3 to 5 times a week, promotes fitness and decreases risk of disease. (Carole & Carol, 2010) Physical Activity Countering negative effects of stress requires caring for physical health and well-being. The mind and body are connected; therefore, paying attention to one while ignoring the other does not promote overall health.
Food is now viewed as a positive influence on health, physical performance, and state of mind, rather than simply a fuel needed to prevent disease and sustain life.
Adaptive eating is characterized by “balanced eating patterns, appropriate caloric intake, and body weight that is appropriate for height.”
Nutrition is an important component of early intervention strategies to improve physical, cognitive, emotional, social, and spiritual functioning.
Tools like food diaries help people to monitor the amount and quality of what they eat and drink and to set realistic goals. (Carole & Carol, 2010) Healthy Diet In a study conducted by Karen LeDuc, researchers found that the primary causes of stress for nursing students were:
Amount of material to be learned (71.10%)
Exams & Placements (61.10%)
Meeting readiness of coursework (55.20%)
Difficulty of material to be learned (35.50%)
This stress not only affects students, but it is believed it also impacts the nursing workforce. These negative effects "may lead to a shortage of nurses entering clinical practice." (LeDuc 2010) For these reasons it is important for nursing students to understand what stress is, its effects on the body, and how to deal with it in a positive way.
LeDuc, K. (2010, Spring). Baccalaureate nursing students' stressors and coping resources. Retrieved from http://www.childrenscolorado.org/pdf/Research-News-Spring-2010.pdf Effects of Stress Conley, K. M., & Lehman, B. J. (2012). Test Anxiety and Cardiovascular Responses to Daily Academic Stressors. Stress & Health: Journal Of The International Society For The Investigation Of Stress, 28(1), 41-50. doi:10.1002/smi.1399
Anderson, C. (2010). The impact of sleep on dealing with daily stressors—a need for controlled laboratory evidence. Stress & Health: Journal Of The International Society For The Investigation Of Stress, 26(3), 194-197. doi:10.1002/smi.1301
Osler, M., Schwarz, R., & Alvarenga, M. (2008). Mental stress is a cause of cardiovascular diseases: from scepticism to certainty. Stress & Health: Journal Of The International Society For The Investigation Of Stress, 24(3), 175-180. doi:10.1002/smi.1198
Citations Worry vs Emotionality: Which one is worse?
Worry has been associated with a more decreased academic performance than emotionality.
Students who worry excessively have lower grades on academic assignments, need increased time to complete tasks, and an overall decrease academic performance.
(Conley, K. M., & Lehman, B. J., 2012) Components of Test Anxiety Two components of stress anxiety
Worrying: Concern for failure and the concern for the potential consequences of failure while taking exams.
Emotionality: negative experiences, including unease that can occur during stressful academic events.
(Conley, K. M., & Lehman, B. J.,2012) Components of Test Anxiety Students with test anxiety often have counterproductive thought processes
Elevated feelings of worry and discomfort
Students take longer to complete assignments
(Conley, K. M., & Lehman, B. J.,2012) Test Anxiety Students who considered themselves night owls
Often wake up with difficulty
Are less emotionally stable
Students report greater levels of anxiety
More likely to express depressive symptoms
(Anderson, C., 2010) Are you a night owl? Chronic mental stress leads to hypertension
The neurotransmitter adrenaline is released from the sympathetic nervous system
Adrenaline is normally found in patients with essential hypertension
Adrenaline is not produced when stress levels are controlled and maintained
(Osler, M., Schwarz, R., & Alvarenga, M., 2008) Chronic Mental Stress Quality is more important than quantity
Sleeping during the day effects the body’s circadian rhythm.
Irregular sleeping patterns can create a feeling similar to “jet lag.”
The body’s endogenous clock is very responsive to environmental light.
(Anderson, C., 2010) Stress and Sleep Experiencing academic stress can have significant effects on the body
These effects include elevated cardiovascular responses
Students under large amounts of stress displayed profound elevations in systolic blood pressure
(Conley, K. M., & Lehman, B. J.,2012) How Stress Affects Your Heart The reader will understand what stress is, how it affects the community, and access resources if needed by the end of the presentation. The reader will understand the effects of stress on the body and utilize coping mechanisms by the end of the presentation. Objectives