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Transcript of Circulatory/Respiratory System
Background on Vertebrates and Invertebrates
Frog - (Circulatory System)
Heart - The heart has three chambers: two atria that receive oxygenated blood from the lungs and a single ventricle that pumps blood to the rest of body. Cardiac tissues only found on the heart, functions involuntarily.
blood vessels - include the veins and arteries which move blood to and from the heart, respectively. Smooth tissues, generate involuntary movements. form part of the walls.
spleen - stores and recycles old red blood cells
Evolution of the Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
By: Rishub Handa
Live in aquatic biome at various depths and temperatures depending on its diet and physical capabilities.
Sharks are apex predators at the top of the food chain.
They are a keystone species, since they regulate their prey's population.
They keep the general population of their habitat healthy, since they target the weak and sick prey, leaving behind the stronger fish.
Humans have had a negative impact on shark populations. Many have been killed for shark fin soup in China, and others get entangled in fish nets.
Live in fresh water biomes around lakes, ponds, rivers and swamps.
They regulate their prey populations of insects, snails, spider, small fish, and other invertebrates.
Frogs are a viable source of food for tertiary or quaternary consumers, such as snakes, foxes, and hawks.
They are an indicator species, so they represent the health of the ecosystem as a whole. Therefore, if there was a negative change in the environment, their offspring would show abnormalities and susceptibility to certain disease.
Humans have a detrimental impact on frogs. Urbanization destroys frog habitats such as wetlands. Damming rivers and chemical pollutants make the environment unsuitable for frogs and cause developmental deformities.
Live in almost every terrestrial biome since they are highly adaptable.
They provide a source of protein for a secondary and tertiary consumers.
Pigs aid in the engineering of the ecosystem. They ration resources and control the habitat, altering the physical states of both living and nonliving components of their community. For example, in an environment where a grass species becomes invasive, pigs will consume higher amounts of vegetation to modulate its population.
Humans have had a negative impact on pigs. The population has drastically decreased since they have been slaughtered for meat.
Live in freshwater biomes such as streams, swamps, lakes, and rivers.
Crayfish are omnivoric scavengers that will consume any decaying organism on the ocean floor such as dead fish, algae, and insects. Therefore, they keep the ocean floor clean.
They are a viable food source for secondary and teriary consumers such as bass, birds, and alligators.
They indicate water quality since they proliferate in clean waters and die in polluted waters.
Humans have negatively impacted crayfish populations. About 65 species of crayfish are endangered due to water pollution, erosion, and dams.
Live in aquatic biomes, mostly saltwater.
Squids regulate the populations of their prey, such as krill, small fish, and crustaceans.
They are a viable source of food for many tertiary and quatenary consumers such as sharks, sperm whales, sea birds, and seals.
Because of bioaccumulation, squids will build up on toxins if exposed to pollutants. They are very sensitive to water quality and will move to cleaner waters if needed. Therefore, a drastic decrease of the squid population in an area indicates water pollution.
Humans have had a negative impact on them since water pollution is affecting their habitat, and we consume millions of tons of squid annually.
Evolution of the Organ Systems
Very early form of the circulatory system.
For the simplest multicellular, aquatic organisms with two cell layers, which are classified in the phylum cnidaria and platyhelminthes.
Jellyfish, coral, flatworms, hydra, and anemones
Cnidarians have a gastrovascular cavity, also called the coelenteron, inside the the outer layer of epithelial cells. This functions as the digestive and circulatory system since it reaches to all parts of the organism.
The coelenteron branches out into canals around the body for increased surface area of the gastrodermis to absorb nutrients and for easy transport to parts of the body.
Open Circulatory System
For complex terrestrial animas with multiple cell layers. (crustaceans, insects, mollusks and other invertebrates)
The "blood" doesn't circulate. Instead, the heart pumps hemolymph into the body cavities where it surrounds all the organs.
The protein that carries hemolypmh is hemocyanin, not hemglobin.
Sinuses are spaces filled with hemolymph, and they transfer it between organs as they change shape and size due to body movements.
Open circulatory systems have a main vessel with many small hearts, which contract to direct some circulation between sinuses.
The problem is that this is only effective over short distances and nutrient transportation is very slow. This wouldn't be useful for larger organisms.
Closed Circulatory System
Useful for larger organisms that require long-distance transport of nutrients.
The blood is closed off in vessels which branch throughout the whole body.
Vessels branch off into smaller vessels and capillaries in every organ, where nutrient and gas exchange is done. This makes sure that nutrients reach every cell.
Two chambered heart - one atrium and one ventricle
Blood is collected from the veins in the sinus venosus and goes into the atrium.
Blood is pumped out from the ventricle, goes through the bulbus arteriosus, and into the thick walled aorta to deliver oxygen rich blood to the rest of the body.
One pump from the heart requires suffficient force to take the blood through the entire circuit. This becomes inefficient for terrestrial animals, since blood flow drastically slows down in the capillaries, and has to travel over greater distances.
Three chambered heart- two atria and one ventricle.
Fixed the fish's problem of having one pump go through two capilary beds. There is a double circuit - one to the lungs and one to the body. The first atrium receives blood from the body and the ventricle pumps it to the lungs to make it oxygen rich. The second atrium receives the blood from the lungs and the same ventricle pumps it out the body.
The same ventricle is used to pump oxygen rich blood and oxygen poor blood simultaneously, causing a mix of the two bloods. Therefore, when it reaches the body capillaries, it isn't carrying as much oxygen.
Amphibians can also absorb oxygen through their skin.
Three chambered heart which is very similar to an amphibian heart.
The ventricle is incompletely divided by a partial septum.
Although there is some mixing of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, the partial septum makes reptile hearts more efficient by preventing some of the blood mixing in the heart.
Mammals and birds have a double circuit circulatory system in which blood passes through the heart twice before completing a full circuit of the body.
Blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs and goes back to the heart before being distributed to the parts of the body.
The heart is divided into four chambers: two atria and two ventricles.
With four separate chambers, the efficiency of double circulation of the mammalian heart is greatly increased because oxygenated and deoxygenated blood do not mix.
Single celled organisms use diffusion across their membrane for respiration. Oxygen diffuses in slower than carbon dioxide diffuses out, so this limits their size.
Small animals without a specific respitory system have tubular or thin bodies for increased surface area to volume ratio. Therefore, the diffused substance does not have to travel far into the body.
Larger animals cannot sustain their size with diffusion. They evolved respiratory surfaces, a layer of epithelial cells, which increase surface area for more diffsion.
Insects have a tubular system, trachae, which directly transport gases to cells from spiracles, openings in the body. The tubes branch off into tracheoles to reach all parts of the organism.
Gills, used by fish, amphibians, and arthropods, are folds and flaps that increase surface area for gas exchange.
They can be internal or external.
They use a countercurrent exchange pathway to maximize gas exchange. This means that the blood flows in the opposite direction from the water.
Mammals use lungs for respiration.
The diaphram flattens allowing the lungs to expand. Therefore the air pressure decreases and air comes in.
The air goes down the trachea, into the bronchis, branches out into bronchioles, and finally into air sacs (alveoli).
This branching increases surface area as diffusion occurs across the aveoli and pulmonary capillaries.
Reptiles use a similar mechanism to mammals, but they lack a diaphram so they use muscles, used in movement, to expand and contract their lungs.
Amphibians use buccal pumping since they lack a diaphram too.
They pull air into the buccal cavity from the nose and mouth. Then they pump the air into the lungs.
Amphibians can conduct gas exchange in their skin too since it is highly permeable and has many blood vessels near it.
Birds are similar to mammals, except they have air sacs to hold gases. During inhalation, the air goes into the posterior sac. During exhalation, the air passes through the lungs on its way anterior sac. A second inhalation bring the air from the lungs into the anterior sac; a second exhalation forces the air out from anterior sac.
Crayfish are arthropods with an open circulatory system.
The hemolypmh travels out of the heart into the abdominal aorta and the dorsal anterior aorta. From there, it goes through the dorsal arteries, which lead to capillaries and sinuses.
Hemolypmh goes back into the heart after being oxygenate through holes in the heart, ostia, with valves to prevent backflow.
Open circulatory systems lead to a low hemolymph pressure, and they cannot pump it to a precise location. Therefore, have a lower metabolic rate and move slower.
Frog - (Respiratory System)
Trachea - is the windpipe which allows the passage of air down to the lungs
lungs - hollow, thin-walled sacs used for respiration
Grasshopper (circulatory system)
Dorsal vessel - collects hemolymph in the abdomen and moves it forward to the head.
Grasshopper (Respiratory System)
Tracheal System -
Spiracles - where air enters the body
air sacs - stores carbon dioxide and oxygen when respiration occurs.
Shark ( Circulatory system)
Shark ( respiratory system)
squid - (respiratory system)
Gills - respiratory exchange between the carbon dioxide and the oxygen
Squids have a closed circulatory system with three hearts, thus solving the low blood pressure problem of most marine animals, where one heartbeat has to pump blood through two capillary beds.
Two brachial hearts pump the unoxygenated blood through the gills and a third ventrical heart pumps the oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.
They use hemocyanin instead of hemoglobin. This is inefficient because it carries less oxygen than hemoglobin. Also, rather than being in blood cells, hemocyanin flows freely in the blood, making the blood viscous at high concentrations.
Squids have to pump blood at a high rate to comply with high oxygen demands. This results in low stamina, which is a limiting factor in what niches they can occupy.
Like most fish, sharks have a two chambered, S-shaped heart (one atrium, one ventricle).
The atrium receives blood through the sinus venosus.
The ventricle pumps the blood out through the conus arteriosus to the gill capillaries, where the blood slows down, so sharks have low blood pressure.
To circulate blood, they have to swim continuously.
Use countercurrent flow. (explain)
Their weak heart does not allow high stamina. They can only perform short bursts of intense activity. Therefore, they cannot chase their meal; they have to quickly hunt unsuspecting prey.
Frogs have a three chambered heart (2 atria and 1 ventricle).
The ventricle pumps out oxygenated and deoxygenated blood at the same time, causing the two to mix. Only the blood that passes through the aortic arches mix, but they still have enough oxygen to supply the rest of the body.
Frogs can absorb oxygen through their skin, but it must be moist, so they have to live near a fresh water source.
Also, having two pumps to carry blood through the two capillary beds allows the transition to terrestrial animals, so frogs can live on land and water.
Crayfish have gills in between their carapace and body wall.
They are attached to their walking legs, so as they move, the gills spread and allow oxygenation of the blood.
Crayfish a water storage pocket to allow respiration on land since they need water to breathe.
Use countercurrent flow.
Its gills have greatly increased surface area for increased gas exchange, thus allowing more respiration and movement.
Crayfish's ability to breath underwater increases the variety in its diet.
Sharks respire with gills.
Water flows in through the mouth as it moves forward and out through the gill slits (have 5 - 7). This is called ram ventilation.
They can also use active ventilation, or buccal pumping, by expanding and contracting their throat to pump water across their gills. This is necessary when they are immobile.
Spiracles are small holes behind the eyes that function similarly to gills. When a shark is near the ocean floor, water can flow in from the top through the spiracle to prevent sand from coming in and damaging the gills.
Some sharks, obligate ram breathers, that are incapable of buccal pumping need to keep moving to continue respiring.
Pigs have a four chambered mammalian heart.
While adult pigs use pulmonary respiration to oxygenate their blood, fetal pigs get it from the placenta. The fetal pulmonary circuit is non-functional.
Oxygenated blood from the placenta enters liver through the umbilical vein.
It mixes with the deoxygenated blood from the anterior vena cava and goes into right and left atrium.
From the right atruim, it goes through the pulmonary trunk and meets with the blood from the left ventricle.
A healthy heart and proper circulation is required for the development of the fetus.
Like most aquatic animals, they respire with the gils.
Water flows in through the mantle; gas exchange is done at the gills; it flows out through the siphon.
At the gills, oxygen diffuses into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide diffuses out.
Its increased surface area and use of countercurrent flow allows more gas exchange to take place.
Squids use their siphon for propulsion of up to 25 mph. They build up water pressure and quickly shoot it out thier siphons by contracting the mantle muscles.
Pulmonary respiration on land. Use buccal cavity to pump air into lungs.
Draw air in through the nose.
Cutaneous respiration in the water through the skin. Capillaries under the outer skin layers can do gas exchange.
Frogs are cold-blooded, and do not use too much energy maintaining body temperature. Therefore, they have smaller alveoli in their lungs, since they don't need to do as much gas exchange for respiration.
Since they can breathe on land and in water, they have to live near sources of freshwater to keep their skin moist.
Also, the ability to breathe underwater increases the variety in their diet, since they can eat fish too.
Fetal Pig (respiratory system)
During inspiration, fresh air enters the respiratory system through the pared external nares (nostrils) and/or the oral cavity to the pharynx. Air then travels through the glottis into the trachea, through the bronchi and bronchioles to reach the alveoli. Oxygen is passed from the alveoli into the blood stream and carbon dioxide is passed out
Take in oxygen-rich blood from placenta.
Don't breathe or respirate because still dependent on mother.
Lungs are non-functional.
Are developing parts, which will be used once out of womb: nares, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lunges, alveoli, and diaphram.
All respiratory systems have evolved ways for increased surface area to allow more efficient gas exchange:
Alveoli in lungs
Feather-like structure of gills for a higher surface area:volume ratio
Single celled organsims are shaped more like spheres for a high surface area:volume ratio
Simple animals have a tubular/ elongated shape for high ratio
Ask about plants
Whipworm (Trichuris suis) - common, world-wide
Affects digestive system
After ingestion, larvae hatch out and go into small intestine.
Mature in the caecum and large intestine.
Damages intestines by penetrating through intestine walls
Diagnosed by eggs in feces
Symptoms: diarrhea, dysentery, anorexia, anemia, poor growth, dehydration, and emaciation
Not treatable to pigs
Anthelmintics such as peperazine can reduce effect
Pneumonia affects respiratory system (lung infection).
Caused by virus, bacteria, and fungi. Most commonly infected by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Influenza A and B.
Can happen during or after an upper respiratory infection (i.e. cold, sinusitis)
Spread through air by inhalation of bacteria/ virus.
Symptoms: cough, fever, shallow breathing, chest pain, feeling tired and weak, nausea, diarrhea.
Treatment for bacterial is to take antibiotics
Takes 2-3 days
Cannot take antibiotics for viral infection
Viral Treatment: drink fluids, oxygen administration and rest.
Antiviral medication such as ribavirin to prevent virus spreading.
Takes 1-3 weeks to recover.