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What is knowledge?

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Andy Ruddock

on 12 March 2014

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Transcript of What is knowledge?

How is knowledge created in media research?
Cyberbullying and paradigm change
On Media Education.
David Buckingham (2006).
Social and media inequality are real, and are also probably connected.
However, researchers need to carefully map exactly how and where these connections are made. T
o do this, they need to listen to the experiences of marginalized people, and develop forms of knowledge-not just facts to know, but strategies for engaging with media-that people find useful.
The goal is to make knowledge from a student centred pedagogy “which begins from young people’s existing knowledge of the media, rather than from the instructional imperatives of the teacher” wherein ‘media education is not seen as some form of protection, but as a form of preparation” (13).
Your project: why do you care about it?
Practicality? Something you can do?
Political convictions?
Anything else?
Conclusion. A good research question...
• Has a particular grounding in a general question about media, communication and society (Research Question).
• Connects with particular traditions in those fields. (Key research model).
• Applies these questions and fields to a particular case study, identifying how one informs the other (Case Study)
• Is alert to the benefits of particular procedural techniques (Method)
• Has a clear sense of ‘benefit’: how does the research project benefit society, people and other academics? (Conclusions and Future Directions).

Why do cultural industries matter to people?
John Tulloch: Media Scholar,
7/7 survivor.
What is knowledge?
Identity. Disrupting 'normal' science
Students making knowledge
"Popular culture, commodified and stereotyped as it often is, is not at all, as we sometimes think of it, the arena where we find who we really are, the truth of our experience. It is an arena that is _profoundly_ mythic. It is a theater of popular desires, a theater of popular fantasies. It is where we discover and play with the identifications of ourselves, where we are imagined, where we are represented, not only to the audiences out there who do not get the message, but to ourselves for the first time."

Hall, Stuart. 1992. What is this "black" in black popular culture? In Black popular culture, ed. Gina Dent, 21-33. Seattle: Bay Press.

"When cultural studies began its work in the 1960s and '70s, it had . . . to undertake the task of unmasking what it considered to be the unstated presuppositions of the humanist tradition itself. It had to try to bring to light the ideological assumptions underpinning the practice, to expose the educational program (which was the unnamed part of its project), and to try to conduct an ideological critique of the way the humanities and the arts presented themselves as parts of disinterested knowledge. It had, that is, to undertake a work of demystification to bring into the open the regulative nature and role the humanities were playing in relation to the national culture. No place existed at that stage, whether in the social sciences or in the humanities, where one could find the concept of culture seriously theorized. Contemporary cultural forms did not constitute a serious object of contemplation in the academic world. And the political questions, the relationships, complex as they are, between culture and politics, were not a matter considered proper for study, especially by graduate students."

Hall, Stuart. 1990. The emergence of cultural studies and the crisis in the humanities. October 53: 11-23.
There isn't one language of knowledge.
We all manage risk-and our experience of doing this represents valid ways of knowing.
It is valid to explore different ways of knowing (Tulloch uses these to explore different ways in which he was 'produced' as a survivor, and to analyse which offered him the most/least power.
How are different ways of knowing used?
Not a question of saying all knowledge is subjective-all knowledge has an origin, and performs a role.
Being a 'survivor' offers a particular way of knowing that constructs valid knowledge about what media industries do.
How do media industries make images 'iconic'?
How do they depend on different ways of knowing?
How do conventional academic modes of inquiry participate in iconic processes?
How does making space for different ways of knowing expand knowledge by confronting media and academic 'common sense'? (See Stokes on scientific common sense).
What is the public value of deconstructing conventional ways of knowing?
You teach media because you wish to bring the experience of pupils into the classroom, to validate that experience, and to encourage students to reflect upon it. My own objectives were to liberate pupils from the expertise of the teacher, and to challenge the dominant hierarchical transmission of knowledge which takes place in most classrooms. In media studies information is transmitted laterally, to both students and teachers alike. (Len Masterman, 2010, 11).
Is the issue of cyber bullying about 'change'?
What are the problems of thinking about the issue in terms of 'effects'? (Draw on lessons from Stoke, Youth and Media).
• Cyber safety is a significant global issue, characterized by certain common trends.
• Data suggest that parts of the world that do not have a tradition of media education might be especially vulnerable.
• However, research on this topic is in its infancy. What this means is that listening to the experience of media users is an important part of defining what cyber risk is.

Cyber Bullying
Questioning Knowledge.
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