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Evolution Timeline

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Locith Asokan

on 12 February 2014

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Transcript of Evolution Timeline

DNA Puzzle
Origins of Life
Humans & Apes
DNA Codes
Human Genome
Federal Court Rejects Intelligent Design
Neanderthal Man - Son of Adam?
Mendel's Breakthrough
Linnaeus' Charts Life
Timeline of Evolution
By: Locith Asokan
Future of Evolution??
By: Locith Asokan
First Religious School
- Puritans of Massachusetts promoted religion (Christianity) classes to be taught in public schools

- The Puritans wanted to have a devotional and well-educated community of people

- Puritan schools eventually evolved and had the purpose of insisting on certain values and religious faith
Events in the History of Evolutionary Thought
Events in the World History
- Essential for the persistence of the religion for future generations
He created a system, that made an attempt to classify all life on Earth
- The system divides life into categories of Kingdom, Classes, Orders, Family, Genera and Species
- Does not imply that different species are related through evolution, but rather a reflection of God's intent
- Contrast to Charles Darwin's Phylogenetic Tree: branching off various species coming off of common ancestor(s)

Proposed that living things evolve to become complex over time

- Realized that organisms were adapted to the environment

- Proposed that by using, or not using, certain body parts, an organism develops certain characteristics

- Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics - thought that characteristics developed up organisms would be passed onto an organism's offspring

- Hypothesis was proved wrong - Acquired characteristics do not change the DNA of specific genes, therefore cannot be inherited

- Example: Thought that Giraffes developed long necks because they needed to & passed on this feature (Use & Dissue Theory)
- Insisted that a series of catastrophes (earthquakes, great floods) wiped out some ancient life

- Expanded on his theory that past life are very unlike to be ancestors of present forms of life (new species replaced old ones)

- Demonstrates that extinctions were real (i.e: Fossils of mammoths was proven different from modern elephants, as a result concluded that mammoths were extinct)

- Insisted that plants & animals were created for specific roles and do not change throughout their life
- Evokes that Earth's geology was created from slow-moving and gradual processes

- Added on to James Hutton's theory that rock formations were formed by slow processes and are ongoing in current time

- Evidence supports the theory of uniformitarianism - Erosion and sedimentation continue to shape up landscapes at gradual pace
- A fossil skull in Germany created debate of whether or not humans were descendents of Adam & Eve
- Skull looked similar to a modern human being
- Fossils reveal Neanderthal with distinctive looks then the ones acknowledged by traditional Christian picture
- Debate if Neanderthal Man is a result of another act of Creation
- Overall: Discovery brings up religious adversities & debates
- Determined that traits are passed through genes

- Realized things such as seed color of peas are passed down in pairs of separate units

- Conducted several plant breeding experiments to decipher the nature of how particular traits are passed down from generation to generation

- Hypothesized that parents pass down seperate and distinct factors to offsprings

- Concluded that only 1 trait is expressed when 2 purebreds were crossed
- Scientists had discovered that random genetic mutations can cause changes in the traits of specific organisms
- Belief that DDT is completely harmless to humans, but many are not aware of the fact that the health effects of DDT occur over a gradual period of time
The Misled Individual
In addition, scientists used Darwin's theory to further elaborate that mutations can become inherited changes
These inherited changes can spread throughout a population through natural selection (organism best suited for the environment pass on traits)
An update to Darwin's theory that has an addition of genetic mutations and new species
- Scientists maintain this model, as it provides explanation of fossil data and diversity of organisms
A powerful insecticide that is commonly used to keep away pests from crops
- Helps to resist mosquito diseases like Malaria
- DDT resistance in some insects support Darwin's theory of Natural Selection ( those insects with traits to resist end up surviving and increase in numbers)
- As a result, this trait can potentially widespread, making DDT ineffective
- Similar to how bacteria are becoming more resistant to antibiotics (bacteria obtain trait to resist, surviving against the specific drug)
- Discovered double-helix structure of DNA
- Helped unlock details of how genes work
- Used the knowledge that genes determine the traits of living things & that they are passed down through generations
- In addition, further discovered that the twisted ladder structure of a molecule can encode genetic information
A graduate student named Stanley Miller created amino acids to insist on the building blocks of life
Helps to indicate that the first life on Earth may have came from natural processes
Amino Acids - building blocks of the proteins that are found in our bodies, coded by DNA
Amino Acids helps to break down food, grow, repair body tissues & perform many body functions
Vincent Sarich & Allen Wilson were able to find out that humans & apes are very closely related to each other
It was estimated that approximately 98 % of their genes are similar
This would mean that humans and apes had a common ancestor millions of years ago
Humans and Apes would have less differences in their amino acid sequences if they are theorized to have a common ancestor and similar DNA sequences
DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule that controls inheritance
Evolutionary scientists have discovered how DNA of various organisms has changed over time, as the organisms evolved
New technology makes DNA sequencing easy and inexpensive, allowing more researches to find more relations between species from ancient time
Genome : Complete set of genetic material of an organisms
After completing the sequence of the human genome, scientists are able to relate human life to other form of life
Interesting Fact: Humans have genes very common to fruit flies and yeast
Genomics - study that characterizes genes & specific traits that they encode
Genomics assist in identifying how organisms evolved over billions of years
Judge John Jones III orders biology teachers to present an alternative scientific theory to explain the origin of life, other than Darwin's theory of Evolution
"Intelligent Design" emphasizes on certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection
Judge asserted that the "Intelligent Design" is a better alternative that can be respected, as it is religious supported and not a scientific theory
Natural Selection - Tuskless Elephants
Intelligent Theory
Earthquake occurs in Naples
A very
catastrophic eruption
in "European History"
Spawned a deadly cloud of volcanic gas, stones, ash and fumes to a height of 20.5 miles erupted from the Mount Vesuvius volcano
Released 100 times the thermal energy released by the Hiroshima Bombing
earthquake caused widespread destruction
around the Bay of Naples
Earthquake destroyed many homes around Neapolis
Conflict Rises between Turkey & Russia
War started between Russian and the "Ottoman Empire" (Turkey) over the results of the War of Polish Succession
The War of the Polish Succession was a build of conflicts over the succession of who should become King of Poland
Conflict between Turkey and Russia represented Russia's struggle to access the Black Sea
Turkey defeated Russia and signed the Belgrade Peace Treaty
Gauss & Mathematical Geometry
Gauss was one of the greatest mathematicians of all time
Established many mathematical theories through mental calculations!
As an addition, he established geometry in this year
Later on, he applied his own knowledge to electricity, magnetism and gravitation
Discovery of Selenium & Lithium
A Swedish chemist named Jöns Berzelius discovered the elements of Lithium(Li) and Selenium (Se)
Developed the concepts of the ion and ionic compounds
Later on he introduced the classical system of chemical symbols, abbreviating elements with 1 or 2 letters
Discovery of Cell Nucleus in Plants
Robert Brown, a Scottish Botanist discovered that
plants had cell nucleus,
while studying approximately 1700 plant species in Austrialia
Other notable observations include the identification of naked ovule of the gymnospermae
Through the microscope, Brown found that the cells contained an opaque spot
Other Essential Contributions: He saw pollen grains suspended in water jigging around for no significant reason
Later, Einstein was able to identify that pollens were being moved by invisible water molecules
Piano Factory Founded
Carl Bechstein, a piano craftsman establishes a piano factory (German Manufacturer)
Aim to correspond to the demands placed by the piano virtuosi at the time
Gradually attained their own designs of pianos, gaining freedom to be unique and creating pianos with strong dynamics possibilities
Unfortunately, during the World Wars, the company suffered financially as Germany created foes, causing less exports of the pianos to countries like Britian that could have been good trading partners
First Oil Pipeline
In Pennsylvania, the first commercial oil pipeline was built
In two decades, oil production had grown to the point where more than 80 percent of the world’s petroleum consumption was supplied by Pennsylvania oil fields
It transported oil by pumps from pitholes, when they were dry
Was able to transport crude oil in a 9km iron pipe
First Electron Microscope
Electron Microscope: a class of microscopes that use electrons rather than visible light to produce magnified images
Founded in New Jersey
Created by using several such lenses in a series
Initially, electrons were passed through a very thin slice of the object under study and were then deflected onto a fluorescent screen, producing an image that could be greatly magnified
First Atomic Bomb
In Mexico, the first Atomic Bomb was denoted
Atomic bomb: a nuclear weapon that releases enormous energy, through nuclear fission
Trinity was the code name of the first denotation
The Trinity detonation produced the explosive power of about 20 kilotons of TNT (successful experiment)
- Subsequently, Trinity helped America and Britian prepare effectively for the atomic bombing in Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Watson & Crick reveal DNA Structure
Crick and Watson used the results from X-ray diffraction data to determine DNA's molecular structure
Gradually created the model
double helix structure of DNA
= Watson-Crick model of DNA
The 2 silver rings on the model represent sugar chains of phosphate & horizontal rods hold the chains in balance
Lung Cancer Relates to Smoking
Lung cancer was reported to be linked to smoking cigarettes
By smoking, individuals gradually form cancer cells that divide uncontrollably without cell regulations
As a result, this could replicate excessively & disrupt the normal pace of the cell cycle (affect tumor suppressors and proto oncogene genes) with vexing mutations
Less vulnerability for organs such as lungs to repair themselves on a regulated basis
First Heart Transplant in Health Care Field
Dr. Barnard performed world's first heart transplant
Unfortunately, the heart transplant was a failure due to the amateur technology and practice
The unit was in regret to inform that the patient didn't die from his condition, but from the actual surgery
An excellent example of how surgery has evolved with great technologies and procedures, today!
Nobel Prize for Mikhail Gorbachev
Wins Nobel Prize for his work in ending Cold War tensions
Since coming to power, he had made an effort to help Russia reach extraordinary heights
He was the secretary of the "Soviet Union" a.k.a Russia
Mad Cow Disease
Disease spread in most parts of Europe (Britain)
Mad Cow Disease (Bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that causes a degeneration in the brain and spinal cord
As a result, causes a cow to lose its ability to do normal abilities
It can be transmitted to people if they eat meat that came from a cow with Mad Cow Disease
If a person eats BSE-infected beef, he or she is at a higher risk for getting a human form of the disease, called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (affects the human brain)
Natural Disasters !
Hurricane Katrina destroyed New Orleans
Major earthquake in Pakistan
Severe flooding in Austria, Germany & Switzerland
Potential for surviving organisms that can continue life
Full transcript