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SWK 337 - Diversity - Part I
Transcript of SWK 337 - Diversity - Part I
CHAPTER TWO: GROUP AFFILIATION AND IDENTITY
Core Values: Respect/Community
Professional Commitment to Competence
Vulnerable Populations: What makes a person "vulnerable"?
Race (physical appearance)
Immigrant status (especially undocumented)
Belonging to more than one of these groups increases vulnerability
NASW Code of Ethics
Standards for Cultural Competence:
1: Ethics and Values
3: Cross-Cultural Knowledge
4: Cross-Cultural Skills
5: Service Delivery
6: Empowerment and Advocacy
7: Diverse Workforce
8: Professional Education
9: Language Diversity
10: Cross-Cultural Leadership
Personal and Professional Growth
This is NOT just about professional growth and competence:
Chapter One: Cultural Competence:
Getting our Terminology Down
Commonly Used Terms:
Culture: set of values, beliefs, and practices grounded in a common history and shared experiences
Ethnicity: Membership in a group based on ancestry, nationality or race
Diversity: variations between and among groups
Race: social construct, a social category NOT a genetic category
Sensitivity: an awareness of the feelings and reactions of others
Terms are used interchangeably
The Bias Bucket
Take out a sheet of paper
Write down a bias/prejudice/stereotype/fear that you have about a particular population
This is anonymous
We will read them together
This is an exercise in transparency and self-awareness
We ALL have biases
The important piece is awareness and attempting to challenge them both personally and professionally
These were popular last century
Based on the idea that people would take on the values, attitudes, behavior, language and world view of the majority
This was the "melting pot" theory
Ignored our differences
Did not value the need for people to maintain their cultural connections
Acculturation Theories (cont.)
We realized the melting pot idea was not realistic
Shifted to the "tossed salad" model
All of the different ingredients maintain their own integrity
People from different cultures could live/work side-by-side but still function independently
Still inherent inequality
Social Structures and Affiliation
ALL people are unique (thus ALL clients are unique); however:
We are born into an environment
We identify with certain groups
Some groups we choose
Some groups are assigned to us
These associations can be positive or negative
Ethnic Conflict Theories
Explore the reasons and extent of the struggle between ethnic groups
Why do you think these groups have conflict?
Two groups have had a special status that affects their place in social structure. Who are these groups and why are they "special"?
How does the government determine membership in these groups?
Who are the newest group of "special" members today?
These are the affiliations that are not readily obvious and that someone can choose to reveal.
This is very complex for the individual (choosing if/when/who to reveal the affiliation to
Examples: LCBT, Muslim, family background, disability, etc.
Class Activity: Who Am I?
On a sheet of paper, make a list of all your affiliations and group identities. After you have made your list, put them in order
What can you understand about yourself based on your list and how you arranged it?
Why are these affiliations important to you?
What impact do they have on your life goals?
Core Values: Respect/Community
CHAPTER THREE: VULNERABILITY, OPPRESSION AND POWER
Oppression: How does it happen:
Occurs on many levels:
Individual - racist remarks, stereotypes, exclusion
Institutional - limits access to materials and services
Structural - norms, habits, and world views that create a system of privilege vs. stigma
Current Events (4)
Leads to violence toward, by and against these groups
Members of these groups can internalize this oppression
Leaves them feeling powerless
May feel that they cannot control their own circumstances
When working with clients who have experienced oppression, the strengths perspective is an especially helpful tool. Why do you think this is?
Power in Society:
A relatively small group of people hold the majority of power in our society
This groups likes to maintain the idea of equality and classlessness so that everyone perceives that they have the same opportunities
Rugged individualism: Is this a myth?
Why are People Vulnerable?
Individual, unique circumstances
Membership/association with certain groups that are devalued
We will generate a list of terms commonly used to describe our clients (in terms of their association with groups)
We will then use different language (from a strengths perspective) to create terms that are more sensitive, empowering, and descriptive
Remember that members of oppressed groups are labeled negatively
Example: "Crazy" vs. "Person with a serious mental illness"
CHAPTER FOUR: PRACTICE FRAMEWORKS
General Practice Frameworks
Three general practice frameworks for cross-cultural practice:
1. Ecological (PIE)
2. Strengths Perspective
How one interacts with their larger environment
Problems occur when the "fit" between the person and environment is poor
Focus of change can be on the individual, the environment, or both
It's not ALL bad news :)
The individual and their environment have strengths
1. EVERY human being has strengths
2. even pain and difficulty can offer opportunities
3. we are not static
4. we are best at collaboration
5. draw upon environment
6. client's belief in SW is of utmost importance!
(Rothman, p. 31-32)
Assists the client to feel valued, respected, and able to control and affect the course of their lives.
Recognize power differential in client/SW relationship
Help client to identify how they normally respond to this
Educate and assist but empower the client to advocate for themselves
Culturally Competent Practice Models
Green: understand the client's as it relates to seeking help
Lum: exploring the client's cultural background, family history and acculturation
Devore and Schlesinger: understanding the "ethnic reality of your client
Helpful things to learn:
Group's history prior to arrival in US, immigration, acceptance, oppression/bias, relationship between their country and US, generational differences, views of child rearing, family/marriage, education, health, aging, death, recreation, etc.
Don't assume/assign these to your client!! Ask them their individual history
Ensuring Effective and Accurate Communication
Offer an interpreter (professional, family)
Allow extra time
Appropriate non-verbal communication
Recognize your limitations
Identify your helping style
Class Activity: Know Yourself as a Helper
Objective: Increase student's awareness of helping style
Procedure: Groups of three. Helper, helpee, observer
Helper describes picture to helpee, only verbal cueing.
Observer makes notes of what seemed effective or not effective
How did you feel as the helper?
How did you feel as the helpee?
Why was a particular behavior helpful for one and not the other?
What did you learn about how you help?
What did you learn about how it feels to need help?
Engagement, Trust and Relationship-Building
1. Manner in which contact is initiated (who is contacted)
2. Person to be included in the interview
3. Formality and form of address
4. Eye contact
5. Physical distance
6. Physical contact
CHAPTER FIVE: SKILLS OF CULTURALLY COMPETENT PRACTICE
Generally best to:
Start off being more formal (Mr./Mrs.)
Immediately demonstrate respect and consideration
Be aware of the intent of gifts to lessen indebtedness
Process through which a worker can learn about the client's culture from their perspective.
Ask them to be your cultural guide
Acknowledges that they are the expert
SW becomes skilled listener, exhibits genuine interest
Good approach is to use the "strength" and "needs"
framing it in this way empowers the client
individual assessments should include info re: culture and group affiliations (how can they be used as resources)
remember that the assessment drives your interventions
Need Definition, Intervention, and Termination
The client should take the lead on defining the problem
They will define the problem in cultural terms
The client and SW should work together to create culturally appropriate interventions
Termination may look very different across cultures (gifts, abrupt end, social)
Utilization of Cultural Resources
SW must be aware of family and community resources
Eco-maps can assist to identify potential resources
Make sure your client WANTS to utilize these resources!!!
Remember the importance of advocacy with these oppressed groups!
EcoMap - we're gonna do one :)
According to NASW, this is the ability to respond "respectfully and effectively" to "people of all cultures, languages, classes, races, ethnic backgrounds, religions, and other diversity factors that...preserves the dignity of each"
What is World View?
How does it develop?
Can you change it?
If so, how?
CHAPTER ONE: UNDERSTANDING
You can do this...
Stay calm and breathe...
Trust your instinct!!
The Agency Environment
This is the neighborhood where the agency is located
The broader institutional community it is a part of
The catchment area
Knowing the agency and the catchment area allows the SW to understand the target population and cultural dimensions
Exploring the Neighborhood
The simplest way to learn about an agency's milieu is to walk or drive the neighborhood.
Check out schools, churches, hospitals, police station, govt. offices
Is the area dilapidated? or well-kept?
Does it seem safe?
Maps can be used to indicate the location of the agency relative to other services.
Explores history, geography, characteristics of the people who live in the community. Also explores community resources.
See Devore and Schlesinger's Community Profile (pp. 50-51)
-Employment and income
-Health and Welfare
-Special Problems and Strengths
Supervisors and colleagues have a great deal of insight into the agency's community.
Talk to other professionals
Go to a playground on a weekend and observe the families
Route of Access: transportation, special assistance to poor, elderly, disabled, near other agencies, cross-cultural biases
Public Areas: culturally congruent decor, brochures, fact sheets, info packets reflect culture
Staffing Patterns: diversity in staffing is critical, language, interpreters
Cultural Factors (cont.)
Education and Training: ongoing diversity training, cultural issues discussed at staff meetings
Sensitivity to Client Culture: awareness of age, gender, family structure, communication patterns
Funding: adequate funding for training, hiring, and service provision
Agency Services and Policies
Image of the Agency: active, caring, involved in the community
Interagency agreements: kinds of services, funding, limitations
Identifying community leaders: PTA, after-school mom, sports coach
Policy development: community members on boards, advisors, researchers, volunteers
Utilization of Community Resources
Agencies develop community relationships and pool resources
Knowledgeable on the community resources used and received, availability, privacy, and confidentiality
Are they providing ethically-based services?
Formulating Policies and Services
Community support networks should be utilized
Bilingual speakers available
Culturally sensitive service requirements
Respecting decision-making patterns
Measuring Cultural Competence
Areas of Examination:
-Effort: are the type and quantity of program activities culturally congruent
-Quality: quality customer service, culturally sensitive, empathy, reliability, security, humaneness
-Effectiveness: are clients better off after coming for service?
-Efficiency: are services provided in a way that maximizes resource utilization?
Film Analysis Paper Due
Current Events (4)
Diversity Mid-term Exam Word Bank:
NASW Code Ethics
Ethnic Conflict theories
Types of Affiliations
Culturally Competent Practice Models
Types of Assessment Tools
Cultural Competent Communication
Groups discriminated against
• You are responsible for knowing this material taken from your power points and readings.