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Domestic Policies of the Nazi Regime in Germany
Transcript of Domestic Policies of the Nazi Regime in Germany
- Education was centralized under the Reich Education Ministry
New series of elite schools:
Napolas(trained students for military)
Adolf Hitler Schools
Ordensburgen(Nazi colleges) A Dictator's Measures So far.... We've discussed
a dictator's physical appeal
how he eliminated opposition
ideology and political platform
as well as a bunch of other things there may have been projects for Now let's take a look at how one dictator formulated policies based on some of the topics previously discussed! Economics Policies and Ramifications Guidelines (Demands) for the Perfect Nazi Curriculum New subjects such as genetics, racial theory, folklore, military studies, and German borderlands were created to promote Nazi ideals.
Students must have a minimum of 5 hours a week of gym, and gym replaced religious studies as a subject in 1935 Nazi's used biology, history, and German lit. to convey philosphy
Darwin's theory of natural selection & survival of the fittest - Aryan race is the best
History was used to “awaken a sense of responsibility in the younger generation towards ancestors and grandchildren that will enable it to let its life be subsumed in eternal Germany”
Emphasis on German folklore to promote stirring of pride in the race. For all teachers and parents: Any Jewish theories were banned, such as Einstein’s theory of relativity. Male and female curriculum split: female education focusing on home care and male education focusing on military. • Teachers and lecturers were subject to Nazi control
• Some teachers were dismissed under the 1933 Civil Service Law and all teachers became civil servants of the Reich
• Special “camps” were organized to reinforce Nazi values, and all teachers below the age of 50 were expected to participate in a sport •Nazi’s took a conservative policy towards women, but women were put to work in war time anyway.
•As the regime grew more secure, treatment towards minorities grew more radical, as millions were killed during the Nazi regime
•Minorities were essentially expelled from all functions of German society and as plans of emigrating minorities to foreign territories failed, concentration camps arose in occupied Europe
•The Nazi’s prime desire was to strengthen their army enough in order to fight a future war
•Nazis enacted the Four Year Plan and set up a managed economy where if private industry did not meet expectation the could be taken over •Nazis attempted to indoctrinate the youth using propaganda, state controlled education, and youth programs such as the Hitler Youth. •Nazis used the arts to promote themes of racism, pure German blood, and classical tradition. Women and Minority Groups Children Econ. 101 Arts and Media Treatment of Minorities The Nazis held a criteria for Volksgenassen(racial purity) and if a person could not meet criteria they were denied citizenship.
The Nuremburg Trials of 1935 banned the marriage between Aryan and non-Aryan races and deprived minorities of citizenship. Asocials Gypsies Jews Include:
-tramps and beggars •Considered threats to the future of Germany and many were sterilized in order to protect the racial purity of Germany
•In 1933, a law was introduced to sterilize any citizens with hereditary illnesses(including schizophrenia and alcoholism), around 350,000 were sterilized as a result of this law which also banned the marriage between sterilized and fertile citizens
•The Nazis launched campaigns promoting mentally and physically handicapped people as “burdens of the community”
-resulted in a secret euthanasia program targeting children up to 16 and later adults
•In 1941 the program was ended due to public outrage once the program was found out to have killed over 72,000 handicapped citizens, however, the program still continued in concentration camps as 30,000-50,000 detainees were gassed after being labeled mentally unfit or of physical incapacity •Even though there were only 30,000 Gypsies in Germany, they were targeted due to their alleged inferior characteristics.
•Gypsies were deported to Poland to work camps, however, in 1942 they were transferred to Auschwitz concentration camp where 10,000/20,000 Gypsies were killed.
•Gypsies were subject to many medical experiments by the “Angel of Death”, German SS officer Dr. Josef Mengele, who chose detainees for gruesome medical experiments that were often fatal.
•In occupied Europe, around half a million Gypsies were killed during the Nazi regime. •Although Jews only composed 1% of the German population, Jews were portrayed as a serious threat and cause of all German problems
•The first state-sponsored act of persecution was the one day boycott of Jewish shops and business in 1933
•The government was still issuing contracts to Jewish firms in 1933, however, all Jewish citizens were dismissed in 1933 under the Law for A Restoration of a Professional Civil Service
•In 1938 the Nazi regime grew more radical and enacted a numerous amount of policies towards Jews such as: Jews were no longer awarded public contracts, all Jewish property valued over 5000 Marks must be registered and could not be sold, Jews could no longer be employed, Jewish doctors, dentists, and lawyers could not serve Aryans, Jewish children were required to adopt the name Israel or Sarah along with other names, all Jews were required to have identity cards, and all Jewish passports had to be stamped with a J.
•On the “Night of Broken Glass” on the 9th and 10th of November 1938, Jewish synagogues, businesses, homes and shops were attacked, which left broken glass everywhere •Hundreds of Jews were injured in the attacked along with 91 killed and over 20,000 sent to concentration camps
•The excuse was for the attacks was the murder of a German diplomat by a Jew, when in reality the attack was organized by Goebbels
•Although many Jews emigrated between 1934-1939, a great majority remained in Germany and emigrated Jews ended up returning
•Jews were forbidden to enter areas designated as Aryan only, further ostracizing them from society
•In 1939, after the invasion of Poland, Jews were placed in Ghettos and forbidden to change residence, wore yellow stars, and had to perform labor service
•Following the Wannsee Conference in 1942 by the Nazi government, Jews were gassed in concentration camps throughout occupied Europe, with over 6 million Jews dying over the course of the Nazi regime
•The Holocaust would prove to be costly as scarce resources needed for the German war effort were spent on maintain concentration camps Primary role as Mother was to further the Aryan race: - birth control centers closed
- abortion made illegal unless necessary for eradication of 'genetic defects'
- maternity benefits increased
The regime offered concessions on school, railways and taxes to large families. Program like the Lebensborn and "The Honor Cross of German Motherhood" promoted the idea of getting pregnant. Only genetically pure citizens could procreate, and if marriage wasn't fruitful it could be terminated. If a couple was found cohabiting after their marriage was banned, they were sent to concentration camps. If a mom wasn't promoting Hitler Youth enough, her child could be taken away. Women in the Workplace Hitler didn't want them working as he thought they belonged in the home.
-Encouraged to quit jobs
-1933 Law for the Reduction of Unemployment: women were given generous loans to quit working and allow jobs for men
-1934 Married woman are forced out of medical and political jobs which are of course given to men.
-Same year, deemed ineligible for jury duty as Hitler believed they couldn't think logically.
-Political positions were out of reach and education was discriminated against women - only 10% of entering class. The Late '30s Bring Change The laws were relaxed in war years:
- men left to fight
- women entered factory positions
- women attended universities Religious Populations 58% Protestants
10% Other religious minorities
-Any minorities that resisted such as Jehovah’s Witnesses were sent to concentration camps
-Hitler didn’t want to attack the churches outright but thought their involvement should be lessened. Catholics -Supported by young pastors and students
-Adopted uniforms, salutes and the slogan
“The swastika on our sleeves and the cross in our hearts.” Lutheran and Calvinist branches had never fully united
Rise of Nazism included “German Christian” movement calling for a new national People’s Church -‘official’ Reich Church
-Confessional Church The Pastors’ Emergency League resisted the German Christians and in 1934 broke away from the Reich Church. Protestants divided into three:
Confessional church was weakening with the youth not being able to attend services because of Hitler Youth Vatican signed Concordat in 1933 vowing the Church would not interfere in politics if the Nazi Party left the church alone
Of course, Hitler went back on his word
By 1939, most Catholic schools had disappeared and Catholic organizations were ousted.
Pope Pius XI wrote an exposé entitled “With Burning Anxiety”
Bishop Galen’s protested against euthanasia in 1941, showed that up to a third of the clergy was harassed by the regime Nazi policy was incoherent and was molded by circumstances even though supposedly based in ideology. In 1920, the 25 point plan claimed it would help small farmers urban traders, but when he assumed power, all Hitler actually cared about was big business that could pay for his campaigns. Early 1933 - some socialist aspects:
- All peasant debts (12 billion Reichsmarks) suspended
- High tariffs put on many imports
- Reich Food Estate: guaranteed prices for produce of peasant farmers
- Reich Entailed Farm Law provided small farmers with tenure by forbidding sale, confiscation, division or mortgaging of any farm land (15-25 acres) owned by Aryan farmers
- Law for the Protection of Retail Trade helped urban traders and forbade the setting up of new department stores. However, all of this took second place to the Nazis' predominant desire, to strengthen Germany to fight. Thus, the concept of Wehrwirtschaft arose, a defense economy that would provide Germany's needs in a future war.
That led to 'managed economy', where the state controlled economy:
-pursued self-sufficiency (which drove out socialist ideas by development of large farms)
-acceleration of rearmament (required support of big business) However, Hitler couldn't create a reasonable standard of living for Germans while being
so committed to
rearmament. Guns and Butter VS. Economic Recovery Nazi’s had to attempt to reduce unemployment, stimulate the economy and address the balance of payment problems which resulted from collapse of the export market
Hitler appoints Dr. Hjalmar Schacht as president of Reichsbank
Unemployment: June 1933 law passed
Gov. spending on public works schemes Arbeitsdienst
Subsidies for private construction/renovation
Income tax rebates/loans to encourage industry Mefo Bills : credit notes Schacht created to raise money for investment
- guaranteed by government
- means of deficit financing
- paid back with interest after 5 years These permitted subsidies and agreements, stimulated housing, construction, a variety of industries.. one being rearmament. In 1933, Schacht looked to decrease Germany's debt to other countries. Controls were introduced to limit the drain of Germany's foreign exchange by paying debts in
Reichsmarks. In 1934, payment stopped and creditors received bonds. Though they opposed, they did nothing about it and the Nazis moved forward with the New Plan. NEW PLAN Supported:
increased gov. regulation of imports
development of trade with less developed countries
development of German trade with central and southeastern Europe - Outcomes - Plan increased trade in Balkan and South American states (lots of raw materials). Since goods were paid for only in Reichsmarks, these countries were encouraged to buy German goods.
"Schacht's creation of credit, in a country that had little liquid capital and almost no financial reserves, was the work of a genius." -William Shirer An Economic Miracle?! YES Unemployment did fall from 6 million to 2.5 million within 18 months of Hitler's rise to power. (1936 - 1.6 million and by 1939 - less then 200,000)
Economic investment increased and public expenditure reached 23.6 billion Reichsmarks in 1939. (17.1 billion in '32 and 18.4 in '33) BUT The economic situation was beginning to improve when he took office. Bruning ended reparations, unemployment was started to fall in July 1932, and work creation schemes and world econ. recovery laid the foundation for an economic miracle for which the Nazis would take credit. Plus their policies were not all that!
Reserves of foreign currency - STILL LOW
Balance of payments to countries - STILL IN DEFICIT
Rearmament - STRAINING ECOMONY
Wages going up.... but the prices of food also going up - NOT GOOD FOR PEASANTS AND WORKERS Verdict Since there was no coherent Nazi economic policy and it changed on any political whim, it is wrong to classify it as a miracle. ? ? ? ? The Four Year Plan August 1936, the Four Year Plan announced with Hermann Goering as director:
-Encouragement given to chemical industry (synthetic fuels)
-Steelworks are developed
-Production of heavy machinery
-Regulations controlling foreign exchange, labor, raw materials
-Targets for private industry established: raw materials, labor forces, ag., price control, foreign exchange, and the Reichswerke Hermann Goering (steel plant for rearmament) The plan set up 'managed economy' in co-op with big business. (Mainly, Hitler said you go factories! and took over any business not working the way he wanted for his power) Though the program had its high points and growth came in key areas, overall goals were not met and synthetic fuel exploration was pricy. Also, the plan was fronted by bureaucratic inefficiency and internal rivalry, and the need to maintain production of consumer goods for Germans. Was Germany Ready for WWII? No.
Different people point to different reasons
- Hitler was unable to concentrate on rearmament because he needed to keep up consumer production
- Germany was ready for a short lived Blitzkrieg but not total war, which is what they got
- He was preparing but was not yet ready in 1939 because he figured he could take Poland, in conjunction with Stalin, peacefully Albert Speer: Wartime Economy When WWII started, rearmament programs were only half completed. Resources were not begin spread to the necessary industries and workers were being plucked out of positions for the army with no one to take their places. To handle economy during war, Hitler hired first Fritz Todt, but he was replaced soon by Albert Speer. April 1942:
Speer finally convinces Hitler to move forward with a Central Planning Board:
set norms for the multiple use of separately manufactured parts to reduce unnecessary duplication
provided for substitution in raw materials and ensured the development of new processes
increased industrial capacity (convert existing plants)
placed bans or limits on the manufacture of unnecessary goods
made schedules and issued output comparisons
organized the distribution of labor, machinery and power supplies As far as labor, he had Hitler and Saukel to face. January 1943, they agreed German women could work in factories (not that this was a common occurrence after that). Labor was maintained through 7 million foreign workers. Speer was able to increase wartime production as statistics show. Speer worked alone and diligently on the economy, which Hitler would never fully understand. In the first six months of Speer's control, rearmament productions went up by 50%. But not even he could overcome Germany obvious disadvantage in the war. Bombing and the shrinking resources would seal the country's fate. Historians say that economic destruction was the product of Hitler's personal obsession. One order he sent to Speer in 1945 was to destroy all factories lest they fall into enemy hands. "The Germans have failed to prove worthy of their Fuhrer. I must die and all Germany must die with me."
-Hitler the Delusional Dictator October 29th, 2012
IB 20th Century Topics
Olivia Ingram and