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Copy of Neoclassicism (Architecture and Sculpture)

requirement for HUMAART

micaela garcia

on 1 October 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Neoclassicism (Architecture and Sculpture)

Arc de Triomphe, Paris
• The Panthéon (Latin: Pantheon, from Greek meaning "Every god") is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris.

• It was originally built as a church dedicated to St. Genevieve and to house the reliquary châsse containing her relics but, after many changes, now functions as a secular mausoleum containing the remains of distinguished French citizens.

• It is an early example of neoclassicism, with a façade modeled on the Pantheon in Rome, surmounted by a dome that owes some of its character toBramante's "Tempietto".

• Located in the 5th arrondissement on the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, the Panthéon looks out over all of Paris.

• Designer Jacques-Germain Soufflot had the intention of combining the lightness and brightness of the gothic cathedral with classical principles, but its role as a mausoleum required the great Gothic windows to be blocked.
Pantheon, Paris
Vilnius Cathedral, Lithuania
The Cathedral of Vilnius (Lithuanian: Vilniaus Šv. Stanislovo ir Šv. Vladislovo arkikatedra bazilika)

It is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral ofLithuania. It is situated in Vilnius Old Town, just off of Cathedral Square. It is the heart of Catholic spiritual life in Lithuania.

The Cathedral was reconstructed to its present appearance according to the design of Laurynas Guceviius in the Neoclassical style; the church acquired a strict quadrangular shape common to local public buildings. The main facade was adorned with sculptures of the Four Evangelists by Italian sculptor Tommaso Righi.
Museo del Prado, Spain
• The Museo del Prado is the main Spanish national art museum, located in central Madrid.

• It features one of the world's finest collections of European art, from the 12th century to the early 19th century, based on the former Spanish Royal Collection, and unquestionably the best single collection of Spanish art.

• Founded as a museum of paintings and sculpture, it also contains important collections of other types of works.

• A new, recently opened wing enlarged the display area by about 400 paintings, and it is currently used mainly for temporary expositions.

• El Prado is one of the most visited sites in the world, and it is considered to be among the greatest museums of art.

• The large numbers of works by Francisco de Goya, the artist most extensively represented in the collection, and by Diego Velázquez, Titian, Peter Paul Rubens and Hieronymus Bosch are among the highlights of the collection.
Helsinki Cathedral, Finland
Helsinki Cathedral is the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran cathedral of the Diocese of Helsinki, located in the neighbourhood of Kruununhaka in the centre of Helsinki, Finland.

The church was originally built from 1830-1852 as a tribute to the Grand Duke of Finland, Tsar Nicholas I of Russia.

It was also known as St Nicholas' Church until the independence of Finland in 1917.

A distinctive landmark in the Helsinki cityscape, with its tall, green dome surrounded by four smaller domes, the building is in the neoclassical style. It was designed by Carl Ludvig Engel as the climax of his Senate Square layout: it is surrounded by other, smaller buildings designed by him.
The church's plan is a Greek cross (a square centre and four equilateral arms), symmetrical in each of the four cardinal directions, with each arm's façade featuring a colonnade and pediment. Engel originally intended to place a further row of columns on the western end to mark the main entrance opposite the eastern altar, but this was never built.
1700-1800 Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment encouraged criticism of the corruption of the monarchy (at this point King Louis XVI), and the aristocracy. Enlightenment thinkers condemned Rococo art for being immoral and indecent, and called for a new kind of art that would be moral instead of immoral, and teach people right and wrong.

Denis Diderot, Enlightenment philosopher, writer and art critic, wrote that the aim of art was "to make virtue attractive, vice odious, ridicule forceful; that is the aim of every honest man who takes up the pen, the brush or the chisel' (Essai sur la peinture).

These new ways of thinking, combined with a financial crisis (the country was literally bankrupt) and poor harvests left many ordinary French people both angry and hungry. In 1789, the French Revolution began. In its first stage, all the revolutionaries ask for is a constitution that would limit the power of the king. Click here to read the Declaration of the Rights of Man—a document produced by the revolutionaries at the beginning of the revolution.

Ultimately the idea of a constitution failed, and the revolution entered a more radical stage. In 1792, Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette, were beheaded along with thousands of other aristocrats believed to be loyal to the monarchy.
The Enlightenment, the Monarchy and the Revolution
King Louis XVI
Denis Diderot
French Revolution
Marie Antoinette

-Neoclassical buildings have many (although not necessarily all) of these features:

- Symmetrical shape

- Tall columns that rise the full height of the building

- Triangular pediment

- Domed roof

In 1563, Renaissance architect Giacomo da Vignola outlined the principles of Classical architecture in a treatise titled The Five Orders of Architecture (compare prices). A few years later, another Renaissance architect, Andrea Palladio, described his own approach to Classical architecture in The Four Books of Architecture (compare prices).

These books were widely translated and inspired builders throughout western Europe. By the 1700s, European architects were turning away from elaborate Baroque and Rococo styles in favor of restrained Neoclassical approaches. In the late 1700s and early 1800s, the newly-formed United States also drew upon Classical ideals to construct grand government buildings and smaller private homes.

How Neoclassical Architecture Began
tall columns
Clean basic lines replacing curves
domed roof
Triangular pediment.
Shape is symmetric,
Modern Examples
Schermerhorn Symphony Center
Sackler Library
Teatre Nacional de Catalunya
Concurrent with Neoclassical architecture was the Gothic Revival, a British-born movement. Gothic Revival (aka Neogothic) may be considered the architectural manifestation of Romanticism, given the Romantic affinity for medieval nostalgia and the wild, fanciful nature of the Gothic style (as opposed to the restraint and order of classicism; see Western Aesthetics). (It should be noted that Gothic construction had never gone completely dormant in Western Europe, given the style’s suitability for churches and university buildings.)

Neoclassicism and Neogothic flourished across Western Europe (especially in the north) and the United States, and to a lesser extent in Eastern Europe. Both were widely used for sacred and secular architecture. Indeed, construction in these styles diminished only gradually in the twentieth century, and even continues (to a limited extent) to this day.
The Neoclassical style that arrived in the late 18th century gave great emphasis to sculpture. Jean-Antoine Houdon exemplifies the penetrating portrait sculpture the style could produce, and Antonio Canova's nudes the idealist aspect of the movement. The Neoclassical period was one of the great ages of public sculpture, though its "classical" prototypes were more likely to be Roman copies of Hellenistic sculptures. In sculpture, the most familiar representatives are the Italian Antonio Canova, the Englishman John Flaxman and the Dane Bertel Thorvaldsen. The European neoclassical manner also took hold in the United States, where its pinnacle occurred somewhat later and is exemplified in the sculptures of Hiram Powers.
Marble is a metamorphic rock derived from limestone, composed mostly of calcite (a crystalline form of calcium carbonate, CaCO3).

The original source of the parent limestone is the seabed deposition calcium carbonate in the form of microscopic animal skeletons or similar materials.

Marble is formed when the limestone is transformed by heat and pressure after being overlain by other materials.

The finest marbles for sculpture have no or few stains (some natural stain can be seen in the sculpture shown at left, which the sculptor has skillfully incorporated into the sculpture).
small maquette (wax or clay)
measuring frame
hammer or mallet
chisel (long point or wedge-shaped pictching)
emery or sandpaper
Cultural Understanding
"Neoclassicism" in each art implies a particular canon of "classic" models. Virgil, Raphael, Nicolas Poussin, Haydn. Other cultures have other canons of classics, however, and a recurring strain of neoclassicism appears to be a natural expression of a culture at a certain moment in its career, a culture that is highly self-aware, that is also confident of its own high mainstream tradition, but at the same time feels the need to regain something that has slipped away
Pragmatic Understanding
ARCO DELLA PACE (Arch of Peace) is one of the most attractive and famous tourist spots in Rome that people would usually go to when they visit that country. The arch is clad in Crevola marble and decorated with Corinthian columns, bas reliefs and sculptures.
Where would we go?
National Museum is also built with Corinthian Columns
The Yuchengco Building in De La Salle University is inspired by the Neo Classical Architecture
2401 Taft Ave, Manila 1004
Taft Ave, Manila 1000
Nearby Places
• Revived the interest in classical ideals and forms that influenced European and American society through thought, politics and fine arts during the 18th and 19th century.

• This was a response to the birth of a new nation.

• The Neoclassicism era was a desire to return to the perceived purity of the arts of Rome.

• In the 19th century, neoclassical architects were greatly influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne – Louis Boulléé and Claude Nicolas Ledoux.

• Works of Boulléé and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe.

• There are links between Boulléé’s ideas and Edmund Burke’s conception of the sublime.

• Ledoux addressed the concept of architectural character, maintaining that a building should immediately communicate its function to the viewer.

• There is an anti- Rococo strain that can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian Architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland.
Intentions/ Purpose/ Functions
• It tends to emphasize its planar qualities, rather than sculptural volumes.

• Projections and recessions and their effects of light and shade are more flat; scultural bas-reliefs are flatter and tend to unframed friezes, tablets or panels.

• Clearly articulated individual features are isolated.
Vase, late 18th century

John Flaxman (English, 1755–1826); Made by Josiah Wedgwood and Sons, Etruria/Staffordshire, England

A colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor
Statue of Liberty
The statue is a frequent subject in popular culture.

Its unveiling quickly became a popular icon, featured in scores of posters, pictures, and books. Later was used or featured in motion pictures, television programs, music videos and video games. Images of the statue have been used as a logo, on commemorative coins, and in theatrical productions.

It remains to this day a popular local, national, and international political symbol and marketing image.
As a famous landmark, destruction of the statue has been to symbolize the end of mankind. In addition, it is often used on websites and images related to global warming. The table below lists some examples of movies which feature the statue destroyed.
"Robert Holdstock, consulting editor of The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, wondered in 1979,

Where would [science fiction] be without the Statue of Liberty? For decades it has towered or crumbled above the wastelands of deserted [E]arth—giants have uprooted it, aliens have found it curious ... the symbol of Liberty, of optimism, has become a symbol of science fiction's pessimistic view of the future."
Antonio Canova
Antonio Canova (1757-1822), an Italian who studied in Venice.

Canova was born in Possagno, near Venice, and had achieved a great reputation in Venice, especially for the group of Daedalus and Icarus (1779). This work is still in an unmistakably late Baroque idiom; the surface of the figures is minutely depicted and their relationship graceful and conversational.

He brought a version of it to Rome in 1779 where he became friendly with the Scottish painter Gavin Hamilton, who had become the arbiter of neoclassical taste after the death of Winckelmann in 1768.

In 1781 Canova was given a block of marble by the Venetian ambassador for a group of Theseus and the Minotaur and, apparently on Hamilton's advice, he decided to show the moment of triumph after the battle instead of the battle itself. The work is revolutionary in its uncompromising severity. It marks the end of the baroque era in sculpture and henceforward the new Grecian style gradually took over as the official style for all monuments and large-scale sculptural projects.
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