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Different Types of Arguements

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Anne Weakley

on 22 November 2016

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Transcript of Different Types of Arguements

Different Types of Arguments
Arguments About Cause
The Problem/Solution Argument
Characteristics
Causal arguments vary in subject matter and structure:

one cause produces one effect
one cause leads to several effects
one effect is the result of several causes
several causes form a chain of causes leading to a final effect
Key Points to remember when making causal arguments:
most causal arguments are highly complex
therefore you must make sure the purpose of your causal argument is clear and attainable
learn and use the specific terms and concepts associated with cause and effect
agent:
person, situation, or event that led to the effect
conditions:
what surrounds the event
influences:
factors that contributed to the event
proximate or remote causes:
contributions to the event whether closely associated in time or space or loosely associated in time or space
precipitating cause:
triggering event
remember there is a difference between correlation and causation
How to Investigate Causes:
commonality:
one agent is common to similar outcomes
difference:
compare situations to determine a detail that caused a differing outcome
process of elimination:
determine a likely list of causes then eliminate them one at a time
problem/ solution arguments usually come in the form of policy proposals:
somebody should (or should not) do X because...
characteristics:
may be about local and specific problems or about broader more general policy issues
need to define the problem
determine the causes of the problem
keep in mind the processes of government
recognize people do not like change
realistic solutions
Claim of Values Argument
Take a position on an issue:
these are claims usually argued with more logic than specifics; more general, abstract, or philosophical
makes a claim about the value of something for an individual or for society
these claims are supported by relevant, verifiable, and related facts
Let's Practice:
After you read the essay, answer the following questions by yourself:

What is the writer's claim?
Is the claim qualified if necessary?
Does the writer use ethos, pathos, logos, and kairos? Give examples.
What facts are presented?
What reasons are given to support the claim?
What are the implications of the claim?
Is the argument convincing?
After you read the essay, answer the following questions in groups of four or five:

Does the writer use ethos, pathos, logos, and kairos? Give examples.
Does the writer recognize the complexity of causation and not rush to assert only one cause for a complex event or situation?
What reasons and evidence are given to support the argument?
Does the argument demonstrate causality, not just a time relationship or correlation?
Does the writer present believable causal agents, agents consistent with our knowledge of human behavior and scientific laws?
What are the implications for accepting the causal argument?
Is the argument convincing?
Let's Practice:
Answer the following questions in pairs as you watch the video:

Is the speaker's claim not just clear, but appropriately qualified and focused?
Does the speaker show an awareness of the complexity of the issue?
How does the speaker define and explain the problem?
What reasons and evidence support the speaker's solutions?
Does the speaker address the feasibility of the proposed solutions?
Does the writer use ethos, pathos, logos, and kairos? Give examples.
Is the argument convincing?
Let's Practice:
Do a John Tyler Database search on your topic. What kinds of articles come up? Choose 5 to explore and write what you learn here: (Remember these articles are reliable, so really use this list to help you narrow your focus.)

MLA Citation
Brief Notes






















Examining an Argument
Characteristics of an Argument
argument:
is conversation with a goal
takes a stand on an arguable issue
uses reasons and evidence
incorporates values
recognizes the topic's complexity
A Model for Arguments
ethos:
the writer or speaker and their distinct qualifications
logos:
the logic of the argument--both the assertion and the support
pathos:
appeals to the emotions of the audience
kairos:
the occasion or situation; the time, place, and genre appropriate for making the argument work
Parts of an Argument
facts:
statements that are verifiable
inferences:
opinions based on facts
judgements:
opinions based on values, beliefs, or philosophical concepts
claims:
arguments that are either stated or implied
evidence:
data, examples
reasoning:

the explanation that connects the evidence to the claim
counterclaims/ rebuttals:
acknowledgment of alternative arguments as well as discussion of why the argument is right and/or wrong
Definition Arguments
Evaluation Arguments
evaluation arguments are arguments , not statements of personal preference--this is the difference between the presentation of facts and inferences versus the presentation of opinions
evaluation arguments are about what is good, bad, best and worst--they describe and rank the value of several different things or ideas
evaluation arguments are only valuable is they clearly outline the criteria for evaluation
those criteria may also need defending within the argument
The Review:

evaluation of products, performances, careers, book, movies, concerts

The Response:

written in communication to another person’s argument, this evaluation points out flaws to rebut or refute an argument

The Counterargument:
this is a position paper that takes the response a step further to explore the opposing argument on its own rather than use it as a way to pick holes in an existing position
What is the author's claim?
What evidence can you point out the show the author kept the audience in mind when writing?
Identify the criteria for evaluation.
What is the evidence that proves the evidence evaluated meets the criteria?
What are the implications of the claim?
Is the argument convincing?
Characteristics
Three Types of Evaluation
Let's Practice...
Defining as Part of an Argument
There are two reasons to include definitions as part of an argument:
when technical language relating to your topics needs to be defined for your reader to understand your argument
when you need to define a word using an uncommon definition for your reader to understand your argument
When Defining is the Argument
redefining or refining the definition of a word in order to affect change, is the central purpose of the argument
Strategies for Developing an Extended Definition
Arguing for your meaning for a word provides the purpose for a paper; however, it does not suggest an organizational structure or ways to develop the argument. Here are some ideas to help:
Does your idea draw a line on a spectrum or set up two entirely different categories?
What are the descriptive details you can provide to establish criteria for the definition?
What are the examples you can give (actual or hypothetical) to develop your definition?
Can you compare/contrast your word to others with similar definitions?
Can you give a history of the word's usage or origin?
What is the use or function of the word?
What are some figurative comparisons you can make?
Let's Practice...
After you read the essay, answer the following questions in a different group of 3-4:
After you read the essay, answer the following questions in a group of 3-4:
Why is the word being defined?
How is the word defined?
What strategies are used to develop the definition?
What are the implications of accepting the author's definition?
Is the argument convincing?
https://www.ted.com/talks/jessica_ladd_the_reporting_system_that_sexual_assault_survivors_want
https://www.ted.com/talks/ze_frank_are_you_human
https://www.ted.com/talks/sanjay_dastoor_a_skateboard_with_a_boost
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