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Transcript of WaldN518TAP2
University of Southern California
October 15, 2012
Professor Corinne Hyde A constructivist way of learning The process of learning is building on prior knowledge by introducing additional concepts.
Learning is being an active participant in one's own learning experience.
Learning is the process of building knowledge, not reciting content or becoming a human sponge
(Anthony, G., 1996).
Assumptions in Constructivism: Strengths of Constructivism Weaknesses of Constructivism Presence of Constructivism Presence of Constructivism Ms. McClellan asked the students to write a list of what they already knew about crickets (using previous knowledge) and a list of what they would like to know (building onto knowledge). The teacher promoted "creating a community of learners"
(Ormrod, 2011). By allowing the students to work in small groups, they were able to learn from one another. Each child was actively participating, The teacher promoted Theory Construction and Assigned Authentic Activities (Ormrod, 2011) Through experimentation, the students came up with new questions and concepts to test. They came to conclusions, therefore, adding onto their previous knowledge. The teacher promoted Knowledge Construction (Ormrod, 2011). learning new ways to think and practiced
negotiating skills. The teacher The students came to conclusions while applying the experiment to real life situations. Lesson
Redesign Option #1 assisted only through guidance. Several learning objectives
are necessary for experimental study and assessment. After the students' presentations, Ms. McClellan could have implemented a peer review portion as a form of assessment. Juwah (2003) discusses the benefits of peer assessment and feedback. Each lab group could have written down one idea that would alter or strengthen the presenter's experiment. Peer review allows for open dialogue between the students, which can promote deeper learning. A positive outcome is that groups are made aware of alternative options available for their experiments. Although this is not a complete lesson redesign, it is an additional strategy to gain knowledge. Lesson
Redesign By having students
rate the members in their group, a form of "critiquing" would be taking place. This falls under the "evaluate" portion of cognitive processes and could be helpful for Ms. McClellan during assessment
(Anderson, et al., 2001). Option #2 It was obvious that there were students who were struggling throughout the assignment and were at a disadvantage. Instead of working in groups of two, Ms. McClellan could have had them works in groups of four. This would be an example of distributed cognition, which is access to more information as a result of more minds working together (Ormrod, 2011). Group work can be problematic if only a couple of students are doing all of the work for the group. Perhaps Ms. McClellan could have had the students privately rate their fellow partners in their group efforts. This could be taken into consideration for the assessment portion of the assignment. Lesson
Redesign Option #3 Lastly, perhaps students should have been required to conduct an experiment following the directions of the group who designed it. After all, a scientific experiment should be repeatable. By doing this, students could see if both groups came to the same conclusion. By conducting another group's experiment, it would become very apparent how clear the directions were to follow. This would lead to an increase in knowledge for numerous reasons.
The groups could discuss similarities and differences among the experiments.
Ms. McClellan would have a better way to assess the clarity of the students' lab directions
and reports. Collaborative efforts allow access to a greater knowledge base (Ormrod, 2011).
Students control their own learning, which can lead to an increase in motivation. Constructivism can lead to authentic student learning and the understanding of concepts, instead of the simple completion of a task.
Constructivism can help "foster peer relationships and social skills" (Ormrod, 2011).
Teaches respect toward others. Misconceptions or difficulty promoting conceptual change (Ormrod, 2011).
Knowledge bases of students may not be in line. Sharing of the wrong information between students.
Overgeneralizing The students were responsible for altering the control, such as light and temperature. These are examples of factors that affect daily life. They were responsible for observations and the construction of a hands-on experiment. References Ormrod, J. E. (2011). Educational psychology: Developing learners (7th edition). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Juwah, C. (2003). Using Peer Assessment to Develop Skills and Capabilities. USDLA Journal, 17(1). Retrieved from http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/JAN03_Issue/article04.html 2012 from https://www.2sc.usc.edu/mod/assignment/view.php?id=22337 What is constructivism? The construction of ideas and knowledge achieved through the interaction with one's own environment. This can happen through one's social environment as well as through one's physical environment (Ormrod, 2011). Children learn through social interaction as well as through hands-on activities. This video is a great representation of how a teacher can help to guide a child's thinking, while still allowing the student to come to a conclusion on his or her own. Presence of Constructivism Constructivism was definitely present in Mary McClellan's 9th Grade classroom ("Teaching High School Science: Investigating Crickets, Renton, WA," n.d.). Group work promoted collaborative efforts and Ms. McClellan acted as a participatory guide, instead of the student's main source of information. The students created their own experiments, displaying the hands-on approach to learning. Students practiced negotiating and problem solving through their group work. The experiments motivated the students to answer their own questions and ultimately, allowed them to come to their own conclusions. Anthony, G. (1996). Active learning in a constructivist framework. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 31(4), 349-369. Maples, S. (2011). Hands on Learning Facilition. Retrieved October 14, 2012 from Conceptual change is the better understanding of a concept by modifying one's current belief (Ormrod, 2011). Not including enough information in regard to a concept. Having too "narrow" of a view. Including too many pieces of information within a concept. Too "broad" of a view (Ormrod, 2011). More on Theory Construction The longer students are in school, the more information they are exposed to in their environment. Throughout this process, the understanding of theories or concepts may be expanded upon and even modified (Ormrod, 2011). Children's foundation of knowledge can be added onto in the following ways: Encourage questions.
Allow students to voice possible
outcomes to a question.
Find correlations between what
students already know and
newly introduced ideas. Use models to demonstrate ideas.
Use examples that relate to the students.
Reinforce learning by having students document the concepts they have learned (Ormrod, 2011). By allowing the class to give feedback to the presenters, the students would be "generating" new ideas. According to Anderson, Krathwohl, Airasian, Cruikshank, Mayer, Pintrich, Raths, and Wittrock (2001), "assessing generating typically involves constructed response formats in which a student is asked to produce alternative or hypotheses" (p. 86). Providing peers with alternate ideas is an excellent way to improve upon one's work. Again, collaboration is fantastic way to gain new insight on a topic. One written suggestion from each lab group could be beneficial in future experiments. I feel it would have been beneficial if students were required to take notes on the other projects. What did students like or dislike about a group's project? What could they have improved upon? Peer feedback can be very beneficial in a learning environment. Perhaps motivation would increase if students were aware that this critiquing would be taking place. By discussing similarities and differences between experiments, students would be making comparisons. "Comparing" falls under the "Understand" portion of the Cognitive Processes in the Taxonomy Table (Anderson, et al., 2001). Discussing similarities and differences can lead into dialogue between lab groups, resulting in more sharing of information and ultimately, leading to the construction of knowledge. Anderson, L.W., Krathwohl, D.R., Airasian, P.W., Cruikshank, K.A., Mayer, R.E., Pintrich, P.R., Raths, J., Wittrock, M.C. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives: Abridged edition, New York: Longman. The process of learning is never ending. Luckily, there are many dedicated individuals in society who have put in the time and effort to conduct research and pass on the information to those interested. Constructivism is just one theory that has been explored and written about in detail. Throughout our lives we continue to learn from our environment, from the people around us and along this journey we gain knowledge. Our expansion of knowledge involves our memory, our intuition, our hands-on involvement, our commitment to learning and all of this is added onto the foundation that has been built upon since birth. Constructivism is an important theory that should continue to be explored and as my teaching career progresses, so will my knowledge. Teaching High School Science: Investigating Crickets, Renton, WA,(n.d). Retrieved October 14, Setting clear objectives is a very important component to ensure both teachers and students understand what is expected of them during a specific lesson. By using The Taxonomy Table, teachers have the ability to make sure the lesson objective, assessment and activities are in step (Anderson, et al., 2001).
Students will be able to record observations.
Students will be able to generate a hypothesis based upon the observations made.
Students will be able to create an experiment.
Students will be able to draw a logical conclusion based upon the experimental results.
Students will be able to explain their findings
by presenting their work to the class. The learning objectives are as follows: http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPKUfZgXcsE