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Temperate deciduous forests
Transcript of Temperate deciduous forests
The growing season in these forests are about 6 months long Beaver: Black bear: Deer: Cardinal: In the Fall, the number of hours of daylight decreases. This causes some plants and trees (called deciduous) to stop producing chlorophyll (a green pigment that converts sunlight into chemical energy) and eventually lose their leaves. During this time, these leaves turn brilliant colors, ranging from red to orange to yellow to brown. There are 5 layers of the temperate deciduous forest 1st Layer: Tree stratum, the tallest layer, 60 -100 feet high, with large oak, maple, beech, chestnut, hickory, elm, basswood, linden, walnut, or sweet gum trees. 2nd Layer: Small tree or sapling layer - short tree species and young trees. 3rd Layer: Shrub layer - shrubs like rhododendrons, azaleas, mountain laurels, and huckleberries. 4th Layer: Herb layer - short plants 5th Layer: Ground layer - lichens, club mosses, and true mosses Case Study Humans use these woodlands in a number of ways: as a resource - wood is used for fuel (firewood) or as timber for buildings
for recreation - for example for deer hunting or walks
Epping Forest is an example of a deciduous forest. It is located in north-east London. The forest is used by visitors and looked after to help maintain the wildlife and its historic landscape. Recreational activities here include:
fishing in the larger ponds and lakes
There are also 60 football pitches and an 18-hole golf course in Epping Forest. The City of London Corporation has overall responsibility to manage the forest, which is a special scientific interest which protects the trees by law. The management has to balance conserving the land with keeping it open to the public. This is difficult to do. Traditional management techniques include pollarding. This technique encourages new growth, and maintains the trees for future generations. It is a form of sustainable management in the woodland. Pollarding also encourages birds to nest. Dead wood is left to rot. Rotten wood is food for fungi and encourages wildlife. Some grassy areas are left uncut to encourage wildlife like butterflies. The recreational areas for biking and horse riding are marked out. This reduces damage to other areas of the forest. Environmental Threats Logging: Most of the trees here are hardwoods, which means they have a denser wood than most of the coniferous trees. It also means they may grow more slowly, which means more pressure to cut the trees to maintain trees at the sawmill.
Acid Rain from coal-burning is another threat, as is global warming, which may change rainfall patterns One of the biggest threats to temperate forests is development and agriculture.
Human settlements are often found near these forests because of their rich soils and were easily converted to agricultural land. Human Culture Menominee Tribe: They settled here due to the moist climate suitable for agriculture, and extensive deciduous forest. They also hunted, fished, and gathered in this forest. They had a tribal organization known as chiefs, councils, and sodalities. Men's jobs were to clear out field in the forest, hunt, fish, fur trap, trade, and warfare. Women were responsible for planting, cultivating, and harvesting. Soil was worked with short-handled hoes; crops were planted in mounds with lots of different crops; this reduces pest problems, plus beans help corn grow.
Gardens became unproductive after a few years ,they were then abandoned, allowed to return to forest.
Main crops were familiar ones of corn, beans, & squash, but other crops also cultivated (sunflowers, amaranth, tobacco, etc.), some of them being species first domesticated in North America
Gathering of wild plant foods & medicine also important, with some regional specialties being maple sugar . THE END. The ground is covered with small plants, flowers, ferns, and grasses. In spring the trees and shrubs produce new leaves and colorful flowers. In summer the tall trees cast shade on the forest floor, providing ideal growing conditions for shade-tolerant plants. Seeds and berries provide for plant reproduction, and feed small rodents and birds. The leaves that fall in the autumn provide plenty of material for decomposers, soil bacteria, worms, grubs, and fungi. All these plants together are the primary producers.
The primary consumers in this system include insects, birds, rodents and deer. There are many different kinds of insects, including caterpillars that eat the leaves and later turn into butterflies or moths. Rodents such as squirrels, wood mice, and chipmunks eat plants and their seeds. Deer feed on the shrubs, grasses, and the leaves on the lower limbs of trees. Birds eat seeds and berries, and many eat insects as well.
The predators (secondary consumers) include foxes and owls (who eat the rodents) and birds, skunks and opposums, who eat insects. The top predator (tertiary consumers), the cougar, preys on deer and smaller animals.
Bears are omnivores and eat anything organic that they can get. They eat some grass, berries, and mushrooms, but also need some high energy protein food such as small animals and carrion (dead animals).
This food chain has four trophic levels: primary producers (plants), primary consumers (herbivores), secondary consumers, and a tertiary consumer, the cougar.