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Research and Theory on Advance Organizers

Kayla Leach

Allie Cozart

on 4 September 2012

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Transcript of Research and Theory on Advance Organizers

Kayla Leach Research and Theory on Advance Organizers Psychologist David Ausubel in 1968. Who popularized advance organizers Advance organizers are used by teachers as introduction to lessons. Ausubel felt that is was important for teachers to introduce the material to be taught before it is acually taught to allow students to locate the information that they already have about the topic and prepare to add new information to it
Advance organizers are designed to bridge the gap between what a learner already knows and what he or she needs to know - David Ausubel What is an advance organizer? Expository
Illustrated What are the four types of advance organizers? Expository advance organizers basically introduce and describe the information that students will be exposed to.
For example:
Before taking your students on a field trip to the River Park Center, you print out a cheat sheet for them to review. The cheat sheet will have vocabulary that may be used by the River Park Center staff and definitions of each. These vocabulary words may be actors, center stage, stage left, stage right, downstage, characters, comedy, conflict, dialogue, form, genre, or basically any words that they may have never been exposed to before the trip.
This is important because it allows students to feel that they have some prior knowledge about the content before going into it. What are expository advance organizers? Narrative advance organizer present information to students in story format
For example:
Before watching a movie about Egypt, you could tell your students about your experience while in Egypt (if you've ever traveled there). You could tell them about a few landmarks that you may have seen and a little bit about the food and the culture of the people
This will allow your students to picture in their mind Ms. Leach walking around Egyptian food and looking at the famous pyramids. It gets their little brains thinking about Egypt and what they already know about it. What are narrative advance organizers? This advance organizer basically involves skimming information before reading it.
For example:
Before taking a field trip to the Civil War Museum in Bardstown, KY you ask your students to skim through the chapter in their book about the Civil War for homework the night before the trip. You tell them to pay attention to key terms and dates.
This provides the students with a beginners level of knowledge about the Civil War and may activate some previous knowledge they have about war and refresh it in their brains. What is skimming as a form of advance organizers? Another way to prepare students for the content they will be learning is to use graphic organizers.
For example:
Before reading a book, you prepare a graphic organizer with the title of the book in the center of a web and different sections branching off with the names of all the characters in the book. You will provide short descriptions about each of the characters. Give students time to read each description and then have them add more detail about each character and the problems they face as they story develops.
This is important because it helps students to feel like they already know the characters and have an idea about what they are like. It also helps them to organize their thoughts. What are Graphic advance Organizers? Allie Cozart Research Theory on Cues and Questions Cues and questions are techniques that call on students' prior knowledge
Cues and questions are ways that the teacher helps his/her students use what they already know about a topic. What are cues and questions? Cues involve "hints" about what students are about to experience
A teacher is providing a cue when she explains that the film they are about to watch on the functioning of a cell will present some new information they already know about the cell, but it will also provide new information.
By telling them they will learn new information she is setting expectations for her students Cues Questions can be asked before a learning experience to establish a "mental set" with which students process the learning
Before watching the film on the functioning cell, the teacher might ask students questions that elicit what they already know about the topic. Questions Research in classroom behavior indicates that cueing and questioning might account for as much as 80% of what occurs in a given classroom on a given day
Teachers are unaware of how much they use cueing and questioning
Eled thought 12 to 20 actually 45 to 150 every half hour Cues and Questions in the classroom 1. Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual

2. "Higher level" questions produce deeper learning than "lower level" questions.

3. "Waiting" briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of increasing the depth of students' answers

4. Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience. Generalizations to guide Teachers in using Cues and Questions Things/People - What action does this thing or person usually perform?
Actions - What thing or person usually performs this action?
Events - During what season or time of year does this event usually take place?
States (of being) - What is the basic process involved in reaching this state? Questions that elicit inferences Require students to analyze and critique the information presented
To facilitate this type of questioning, it is useful to have a list of analytic skills
Examples of Analytic Skills
Analyzing Errors: Identifying and articulating errors in the logic of information
Constructing Support: Constructing a system of support or proof for an assertion
Analyzing Perspectives: Identifying and articulating personal perspectives about issues Analytic Questions
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