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The Columbian Exchange

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Tristan Forgach

on 17 October 2016

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Transcript of The Columbian Exchange

The Columbian Exchange
Before Columbus
Estimated: 25-100 million people
Major Civilizations:
Aztecs
in Central Mexico
Maya
in Yucatan Peninsula
Inca
in Andes - South America
Most other natives were hunters and gatherers.
European Entrance
1492 - Columbus "discovered" the New World
The significance of Columbus is that
he established trade
between the old and new worlds.
He did not discover the New World, nor was he the first foreigner to step foot on the continent.
What is the
Columbian Exchange?
The Columbian exchange is the widespread trade that took place after the "discovery" of the New World.
Animals, crops, dieases, and people were exchanged shifting the course of world history.
After Columbus
Columbus returned to Europe and told of a vast land rich with resources.
This attracted many other Europeans to the New World due to:
God - wanted to spread Christianity
Glory - Reach immortality as a famous explorer
Gold - become rich.
Effects on People
Europeans used superior weapons to gain control of the native populations during wars.
guns vs. bows & arrows.
Many natives also died from European Disease
Europeans brought diseases with them to new world.
Natives had no immunity due to lack of domesticated animals.
led to massive depopulation of natives
Natives were also forced into slave labor on plantations.
Depopulation of natives due to wars, disease, and slavery led to the importation of African slaves.
Depopulation of the Native Americans
Due to the importation of European diseases, the native population declined by as much as 24 million indians in 75 years ~ 80% just from diseases.
Indigenous Depopulation
According to some estimates, 95% of the native population of the America's that came in contact with Europeans died within 130 years of Columbus' discovery of America.
Effects on the Plants
With the exchange of new crops, new growing regions opened.
Led to more food globally
More food led to an explosion in population, mostly in Europe.
Examples:
Potatoes, chocolate, and tomatoes were not grown outside of South American until 1492.
Onions were not featured in Latin American food until 1492.
Effect of Animals
One of the first European exports, the horse, drastically changed the way of life of Native Americans.
It allowed them to continue a nomadic lifestyle
More successful on horeseback.
Before Europeans, the Llama was the only domesticated animal in the Americas.
Europeans had:
Cows, horses, chickens, pigs, and sheep
Consider the Following
How did the Columbian Exchange affect the old world? New world?

How would the world today be different had the Columbian Exchange never happened?
Effects today:
The Columbian Exchange also created new social classes of people:
Peninsular
- born on the European peninsula but lived in Latin America
Criollos
- descendants of Europeans but born in Latin America
Mestizos
- Native and European descent
Mulatto
- African and European descent
Zambo
- African and Native descent


Europeans in the New World
Europeans began to settle Latin America.
Led to the
Treaty of Tordesillas.
An agreement between the Spanish and Portuguese on how to divide the new world between themselves.
Portugal - Got Brazil (reason Brazil speaks portuguese today).
Spain - Rest of South America.
British - Caribbean islands
Dutch and French also gained some territory.
Full transcript