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Euthanasia

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meme hemetto

on 7 January 2014

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Transcript of Euthanasia

Euthanasia
( Mercy Killing )

Countries that oppose the practice of euthanasia view the same as murder and disrespect for human life.
In these countries it is wrong for doctors to assist patients to commit euthanasia and this is a crime punishable by law.


Countries in support of euthanasia
In countries such as the Netherlands, Belgium, India, Luxembourg and Switzerland euthanasia and in particular physician assisted suicides are legal.

The same also applies for some states in the United States of America such as Washington, Montana, Oregon and Vermont.

In Ontario Canada, passive euthanasia is allowed if the person’s living will authorizes them.

Countries that support euthanasia are of the view
euthanasia is right if it is in accordance to the wishes of the person undergoing the process.
However, for euthanasia to be conducted the person’s consent must have been freely given and they must be of the legal age.
The euthanasia must also be conducted in a recognized hospital with the help of a certified medical doctor.
In all these jurisdictions, safeguards, criteria, and procedures are put in place to control the practices, to ensure societal oversight, and to prevent euthanasia from being abused or misused.

Euthanasia and religion
Rights argument:
people have the right to die in order to stop their pain.

Writer opinion :
Human beings have the right to die when and how they want to die.

Contributing Argument:
Human beings are independent biological beings.
There is a political and philosophical objection.

Evidence
Professor Stephen Hawking.
Practical argument:
allowing people to die may free up scarce health resource.

Writer opinion :
people who can't cure and want to die they should allow them.

Contributing Argument:
In most countries there is a shortage of health resources.
Will allow more people to be happy.

Today’s hospitals are overcrowded.
in China there is weakness of health care supplies for the terminally ill.

Philosophical argument:
Euthanasia happens anyway (a utilitarian).

Writer opinion :
Euthanasia happens if it is legal or illegal in some countries. He want it to be legal.

Contributing Argument:
Allowing people to have a good death at a time of their own choosing.
But at the same time it is hard to measure the happiness.



Outline

Introduction
Definition of Euthanasia
History of Euthanasia
Law view of euthanasia
Pro euthanasia argument
Against euthanasia argument
Overlap between euthanasia and business ethics
Conclusion
Definition of Euthanasia
Euthanasia comes from the Greek words, Eu (good) and Thanatosis (death) and it means "Good Death, "Gentle and Easy Death." This word has come to be used for "mercy killing." In this sense euthanasia means the active death of the patient, or, inactive in the case of dehydration and starvation.
History of Euthanasia
Types of Euthanasia
1- Active and passive euthanasia
2- Voluntary and involuntary euthanasia
Conclusion

Sum up
Project limitation
Conclusion in reflection
Slippery Slope
A society that allows voluntary euthanasia will gradually change its attitudes to include non-voluntary and then involuntary euthanasia.
Legalizing euthanasia may discourage research into relief treatments.

Practical argument
Any euthanasia legislation is likely to contain a conscientious objection provision.

Opponents of euthanasia are therefore likely to require stronger protections than conscientious objection.
Opponents to euthanasia opposes the general normalization of euthanasia as a medical service.

This may be combined with an unwillingness to contribute financially.

They ask if introducing euthanasia as an option undermines or weakens claims to have expensive life treatment.

Ethical argument
Euthanasia is a rejection of the importance and value of human life.
With euthanasia no one's life is being saved.
Allah chooses how long each person will live. Human beings should not interfere in this.
Do not take life, which Allah made sacred, other than in the course of justice. Qur'an 17:33.

Arguments in support of euthanasia
the written consent of the person is needed, where the person agrees to authorize the act and be fully aware of the consequences (Kohl & Kurtz, 1975).
Further, the process should only be conducted to adults or persons who have attained the legal age recognized in the particular country, this is mostly 18 years in most countries.
Further, the support arguments argue mandatory reporting of all euthanasia procedures should be done so as to give room for proper investigation be made to ensure that the patient is has given their consent for the procedure.’
Finally, the law will ensure that the person had the capacity required to make the decision, this is the mental or the physical capacity to make a decision

Evidence

John Stuart Mill
Elizabeth Bouvia


Indirect euthanasia
Group members

Rabab Abdulameer 201050047
Mariam Khalid 200835319
Ghaneya Saif 200907239
Sara Rashed 201100114
Shaikha Awad 200714581


Definition, Types & History of Euthanasia
Active euthanasia
a person directly and deliberately causes the patient's death.
Passive euthanasia
they don't directly take the patient's life, they just allow them to die. also, when death is brought about by anomission - i.e. when someone lets the person die. This can be by withdrawing or withholding treatment:

Withdrawing treatment:
for example, switching off a machine that is keeping a person alive, so that
they die of their disease

Withholding treatment:
for example, not
carrying out surgery that will extend
life for a short time.
voluntary euthanasia
is described as the fact that the doctor puts an end to a patient’s life according to the will of competent patient or to the patient’s advance directive.

Non-voluntary

euthanasia
concerns cases whereby the doctor decides, with or without consultation with the patient’s family, on behalf of the patient who has not expressed the will on this matter because the patient is either incompetent or has ignored to do so. The doctor often decides whether certain patients should be required to be artificially resuscitated or not.

Involuntary euthanasia
means euthanasia which is administrated against the wish of the patient.

This means providing treatment (usually to reduce pain) that has the side effect of speeding the patient's death.
Since the primary intention is not to kill, this is seen by some people (but not all) as morally acceptable.

Physician-assisted suicide
The first apparent usage of the term"euthanasia"
belongs to the historian Suetonius who described
how the Emperor Augustus, "dying quickly and without suffering in the arms of his wife, Livia, experienced the
'euthanasia' he had wished for."The word "euthanasia"
was first used in a medical context by Francis Bacon in the 17th century, to refer to an easy, painless, happy death,
during which it was a "physician's responsibility to
alleviate the 'physical sufferings' of the body.
This usually refers to cases where the person who is going to die needs help to kill themselves and asks for it. It may be something as simple as getting drugs for the person and putting those drugs within their reach.
Introduction
Euthanasia debate
Why this topic?
Report structure

Overlap between euthanasia and business ethics
Ethical analysis of euthanasia
Legal system and euthanasia
Religion and euthanasia

Evidence
Pro-euthanasia argument
Anti-euthanasia argument
It prevents cures for people with terminal illnesses. Doctors may be mistaken about a person’s diagnosis.
A person may choose euthanasia due to being wrongly told that they have a terminal condition.

Thank You
For Your
Attention
Any
Questions
Law view of euthanasia
voluntary
Non-voluntary
when the concerned patient agrees to it and can also be non voluntary when conducted without the knowledge and
consent of the patient

considered illegal in all countries worldwide and is considered murder, which is actually legally punishable. Further, the act of euthanasia can be either passive or active. Passive euthanasia involves the action of ending a person’s life by the failure to take all the measures necessary to maintain the person’s life.


Islam
Christianity
Muslims believe that one cannot control death and deciding on when to die is a sin.
However, this religion permits persons suffering from certain illness to refuse medication.
It is argued therefore that passive euthanasia, that is withdrawal of medicine and other forms of life support is allowed by the Islam religion.

They believe that life is a gift from God and no one has the right to take life, be it their own or that of others.
To kill one is to deny God right over life and his decision on when life should end and therefore, no person is supposed to have that right over their life or that of
any other person



Pro-life arguments (against Euthanasia)
A dying patient may not be able to make a rational decision.
A patient may have said they want euthanasia when they were nowhere near death; however, when faced with death they may change their mind but be incapable of telling anyone.
Many people recover after being “written off” by doctors.
Euthanasia makes life disposable – it could be the first step on a slippery slope.
Hippocratic Oath: doctors must try to preserve life. If euthanasia was legalised, the relationship of trust between doctors and patients can be destroyed.
If there were better facilities for caring for dying, there
would be less need for euthanasia.
People might be pushed into saying they want euthanasia
by relatives who do not want to look after them.

Best Definition of Euthanasia
In British :
a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending a life, to relieve intractable suffering
In Greek:

the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering.
In Holland:
understood as "termination of life by a doctor at the request of a patient
Greek and British meaning is the same mostly, but Holland
is different because it depends on Patient
rather than doctor.
I prefer
Greek and British
Definition, because it
is
more widely and accurate
Countries against euthanasia
Full transcript