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Heidi Tarman

on 16 May 2015

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You will be better able to understand why a particular hairstyle will or will not be the best choice for a client.
The principles of design will serve as helpful guidelines to assist you in achieving your styling vision.
You will be able to create haircuts and styles designed to help clients camouflage unattractive features while emphasizing attractive ones.
Philosophy of Design
A good designer always envisions the end result before beginning.

Inspiration can come from almost anywhere, at any time
. Movies, TV, magazines, videos, a person on the street ---anything, anywhere---can spark the creative process. One of the best sources of inspiration can be found in nature. The rhythm and movement of ocean waves have inspired painters, poets, composers and hairstylists. The shapes, colors, patterns and textures of plants, animals and minerals are also a great source of visual ideas. At times, you may find yourself looking to the past for inspiration. Hair design ususally follow fashion trends to create the total look.
Once inspired, you will need to decide which tools and techniques--cutting shears, flat irons, permanent wave, etc. --- are needed to achieve your design. AS you develop or practice a tchnique, there is always the chance that your original concept will turn into something entirely different. There are no failures if the experience is a lesson learned. If you are open to change, the creative process will be exciting and satisfying.
Elements of Hair Design
To begin to understand the creative process involved in hairstyling, it is creative process involved in hairstyling, it is critical to learn the
five basic elements
of three-dimensional design. These elements
are line, form, space, texture and color.
Describe the possible sources of hair design inspiration.
List the 5 elements of hair design.
List the 5 principles of hair design.
Understand the influence of hair type on hairstyle
Identify different facial shapes and demondtrate how to design hairstyles to enhance or camouflage facial features.
Explain design considerations for men.
As a designer, you will need to develop a visual understanding of which hairstyles work best on different face shapes and body types. It takes time and experience to train your eye to recognize the best design decision. You cannot achieve a trained eye simply through book learning. Sometimes the best teacher is time and the trial and error process that comes through experience. Having a strong design foundation will help make you a great stylist. Once you have these basic skills, your creative juices will kick in and you can move beyond the basics.
Having a strong foundation in technique and skills will allow you to take calculated risks. It is important in this field to take those risks. Too many stylists confine themselves to the basics, where they feel safe. But "safe" can translate into "dull". If you are looking for a satisfying, long-term career, do not allow yourself to become what is known in the beauty industry as a
cookie cutter
hair designer who learns a new haircut and then gives it everyone who sits in his or her chair for the next month. Think outside the box!! You can keep growing by having your eyes and mind always open to learning.
Line defines form and space.
Lines create the shape, design and movement of a hairstyle. The eye follows the lines in a design. They can be straight or curved. There are four basic types of lines:
Horizontal lines
create width in hair design
. They extend
in the same direction
and maintain
a constant distance apart
--from the floor or horizon.
Vertical lines
create length and height in hair design.
make a hairstyle appear longer and narrower
as the eye follows the lines up and down.
Diagonal lines
are positioned between horizontal and vertical lines.

They are often used to emphasize or minimize facial features
Curved lines
are lines moving in a circular or semi-circular direction, soften a design
Curved lines may move in a clockwise or counter-clockwise directions.

Curved lines repeating in opposite directions create a wave.
Designing with Lines
Hairstyles are created by the type of line, direction, or combination you choose:
Single lines.

An example of this is the one-length hairstyle.
Best for clients requiring the lowest maintenance when styling their hair.
Parallel lines
are repeating lines in a hairstyle.
They can be straight or curved
. A finger wave is an example of a style using curved, parallel lines.
Contrasting lines
are horizontal and vertical lines that meet at a 90 degree angle. These lines create a hard edge
. Gives a strong look.
Transitional lines
usually curved lines that are used to blend and soften horizontal or vertical line
Directional lines
are lines with a definite forward or backward movemen
is the mass or general outline of a hairstyle.
It is three-dimensional and has length, width and depth.
Form or mass may also be called volume. The silhouette is usually the part of the overall design that a client will respond to first.
The hair form should be in proportion to the shape of the head and face, the length and width of the neck, and the shoulder line.
is the area surrounding the form or the area the hairstyle occupies.
In hair design, with every movement the relationship of the form and space change. The space may contain curls, curves, waves, straight hair or any combination.
Design Texture
Design texture
refers to wave patterns that must be taken into consideration when designing a style for your client.
All hair has a natural wave pattern --- straight,wavy, curly or extremely curly.
So, straight hair reflects light better than other wave patterns, and straight hair reflects light better than other wave patterns, and wave straight hair reflects the most light when it is cut to a single length.
Wavy hair can be combed into waves that create horizontal lines. Curly hair and extremely curly hair do not reflect much light and can be coarse to the touch. Curly hair creates a larger form than straight or wavy hair does.
Creating Design Texture with Styling Tools
Texture can be created temporarily with the use of heat and/or wet styling techniques.
Changing Design Texture with Chemicals
Chemical wave pattern changes are considered permanent
. Curly hair can be changed with chemical relaxers.
Tips for Designing with Wave Patterns
Watch about using to many wave pattern combinations, as this can create a look that is very busy.
Smooth wave patterns accent the face and are particularly useful when you wish to narrow a round head shape
Curly wave patterns take attention away from the face and can soften square or rectangular features.
Haircolor plays an important role in hair design, both visually and psychologically. It can be used to make all or part of the design appeart larger or smaller.
Haircolor can help define texture and line, and it can tie design elements together.
Dimension with Color
Light colors and warm colors create the illusion of volume. Dark and cool colors recede or move in toward the head, creating the illusion of less volume. Dimension , or depth, is created when colors that are lighter and warmer alternate with those that are darker and cooler.
Lines with Color
Because the eye is drawn to the lightest color, you can use light color to draw a line in a hairstyle in the direction you want the eye to travel. A single line of color, or a series of repeated lines of color, can create a bold, dramatic accent.
Color Sel
When choosing a color, be sure that the tone is compatible with the skin tone of the client.
Gold toned skin use warm colors, they are more flattering
. For a conservative or natural look choose colors with similar tones within two level of each other. Bold colors should be used only on clients who are trendy and can carry off a bold look.
Principles of Hair Design
There are five principles in art and design---proportion, balance, rhythm, emphasis and harmony---they are also the basis of hair design.
is the comparative relationship of one thing to another
. So a well-chosen hairstyle can create the illusion of better proportion on your client.
Body Proportion
In designing a hairstyle that you take into account the client's body shape and size. Challenges in body proportion become more obvious if the hair form is too small or to large.
For instance, when choosing a style for a woman with large hips or broad shoulders, you would normally create a style with more volume
. A general guideline for classic proportion is that the hair should not be wider than the center of the shoulders, regardless of the body structure.
is establishing equal or appropriate proportions to create symmetry
. In hairstyling, it can be the proportion of height to width. Balance can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. Usually when you are not happy with a style it is because the style is out of balance.
Symmetrical balance
occurs when an imaginary line is drawn through the center of the face and the two resulting halves form a mirror image of one another.
Asymmetrical balance
is established when the two imaginary halves of a hairstyle have an equal visual weight, but are positioned unevenly.
Assymmetry can be horizontal or diagonal.
is a regular pulsation or recurrent pattern of movement in a design.
In hair design, a fast rhythm moves quickly; tight curls are an example. A slow rhythm can be seen in larger shapings or long waves.
The emphasis
also known as
in a design is what draws the eye first, before it travels to the rest of the design.
A hairstyle can be balanced, with good rhythm and harmony, and yet still be boring. Create interest with an area of emphasis or focus by using the following:
Wave patterns
Change in form
You can have multiple points of emphasis as long as you do not use too many. Remember less is more.
is the creation of unity in a design an is the most important of the art of principles. Harmony holds all the elements of the design together
. When a hairstyle is harmonious it has the following elements:
A form with interesting lines
A pleasing color or combination of colors and textures
A balance and rhythm that together strengthen the design
An artistic and suitable hairstyle will take into account physical characteristics such as the following
Shape of the head
, including the front view (face shape), profile and back view.
(perfect as well as imperfect features)
Body Posture
Influence of Hair Type on Hairstyle
Your client's hair type is a major consideration in the selection of a hairstyle.
Hair type is categorized by two defining characteristics: wave pattern and hair texture.
All hair as natural wave patterns that must be taken into consideration when designing a style. These wave patterns are straight, wavy, curly and extremely curly. Hair texture, density and the relationship between the two are also important factors. The basic hair textures are: fine, medium and coarse. Hair density, or hair per square inch, ranges from very thin to very thick.
Keep in mind the following guidelines for different types of hair:
Fine, straight hair
Left natural this hair type may not support many styling options.
Straight, medium hair
. Offers more versatility.
Straight, coarse hair
. Hard to curl and carries more volume.
Wavy, fine hair
. Can appear fuller with the proper haircut.
Wavy, medium hair
This type of hair offers the most versatility in styling.
Wavy, coarse hair
. Produces a silhouette that is very wide and the hair can appear unruly if not shaped properly.
Curly fine hair
. Can separate when worn long and may show some scalp, depending on the density.
Curly, medium hair
. Creates a wide silhouette. When left natural can create a soft romantic look.
Curly, coarse hair
. Needs heavy styling products to weigh it d
Very curly, fine hair
For ease of styling, this hair is generally cut short.
Extremely curly, medium hair
. Silhouettes can get very wide, chemical relaxers work well to make the shape narrower.
Extremely curly, coarse hair
. Silhouette will be extremely wide, relaxers are often recommended to make styling easier.
Creating Harmony between Hairstyle and Facial Structure
A client's facial shape is determined by the position and prominence of the facial bones. A good way to determine facial shape is to pull the client's hair completely off the face using a towel or hair band. Remember, when designing a style for your client's facial type, you generally are trying to create the illusion of an oval shaped face.
There are 7 basic facial shapes:
Oval Facial Type
. Forms the basis and ideals for evaluating and modifying all other facial types.
It is about one and one half times longer than its width across the brow.
Forehead is slightly wider than the chin.
Round Facial Type
. Needs a
hairstyle that has height or volume on top and closeness or no volume at sides.
Square Facial Type
. Wide at the temples,
narrow at the middle third of face

and squared off at the jaw. Create volume in the area
between the temples and jaw by adding width around ear area.
Triangular (Pear-Shaped) Facial Type
Narrow forehead, wide jaw and chin line.
Needs volume at the temples and some height on top. To disguise narrow forehead use a soft bang or fringe.
Oblong Facial Type.
Long, narrow face with hollow cheeks
. Keep hair close to top of head, add volume on sides. Hair should not be too long.
Diamond Facial Shape
Narrow forehead, extreme width through the cheekbones and narrow chin
. Increase fullness across jawline and forehead while keeping hair close to the head at the cheekbone.
Inverted Triangle (Heart-Shaped) Facial Type
Wide forehead and narrow chin line.
No volume at the top with gradual volume and width increase near cheekbones and more increase at the chin.
The profile is the outline of the face, head or figure seen in a side view. There are three basic profiles:
Straight profile
is considered ideal.

Convex profile
has a receding forehead and chin.

Concave profile
has a prominent forehead and chin, with other features receded inwards.
Special Considerations
An understanding of facial features and proportions will make it easier for you to analyze each client's face. You can then apply the design principles you have learned to help balance facial structural challenges. Dividing the face into 3 sections is one way to do this analysis.
Top Third of the Face
Wide forehead
: Direct hair forward over the sides of the forehead.
Narrow forehead
: Direct hair away from the face at the forehead.
Lighter highlights may be used to create the illusion of width.
Receding forehead
: Direct the bangs over the forehead with an outwardly directed volume.
Large forehead
: Use bangs with little or no volume to cover the forehead.
Middle Third of the Face
Close-set eyes
Direct hair back and away from the face at the temples.
Wide-set eyes
: Use a higher half bang to create length in the face.
Crooked nose
: Asymmetrical, off-center styles are best.
Wide flat nose
: Draw hair away from the face and use center part to help elongate and narrow the nose.
Long, narrow nose
: Stay away from styles that are tapered close to the head on the sides, with height on top.
Small nose
: Best to design an age-appropriate hairstyle that would not be associated with children.
Prominent nose
To draw attention away from the nose, bring hair forward at the forehead with softness around the face.
Lower Third of the Face
Round jaw
: Use straight lines at the jaw line.
Square jaw
: Use curved lines at the jaw line.
Receding Chin
Hair should be directed forward in the chin area
Small chin
: Move the hair up and away from the face along the chin line.
arge chin
: Hair should be longer or shorter than the chin line.
Head Shape and Styling for People Who Wear Glasses
See Pages 301 & 302
Hair Partings
Hair partings can be the focal point of a hairstyle. Because the eye is drawn to a part, you must be careful in the placement. When possible, it is best to use a natural parting.
Partings for the Bang (Fringe)
A triangular parting is the basic parting for bang sections.
A diagonal parting gives height to a round or square face and width to a long, thin face.
A curved part is used for a receding hairline or high forehead.
Style Partings
Center partings are classic.
Side partings
Diagonal back partings
Zigzag partings
There are 4 other partings that can be used to highlight facial features:
Designing for Men
All the design principles and elements you have just learned about work for men's hairstyles as well as for women's. Now all hair lengths are acceptable for men, giving them more choices than ever before. As a professional you should be able to recommend styles that are both flattering and appropriate for the client's lifestyle, career and hair type.
Choosing Facial Hair Design
Mustaches, beards and sideburns can be a great way for a male client to show his individual style. They can also be used to camouflage facial flaws. Example:
If a man has a wide face and full cheeks, a fairly close-trimmed beard and mustache would be very thinning to the overall appearance.

Sideburns, mustaches and beard shapes are largely dictated by current trends and fashions. No matter what the trend is, it is important that the shapes appear well groomed and are flattering to the client.
bang area
, also known as

fringe area
is the triangular section that begins at the apex and ends at the front corners.
It is parted in 3 basic ways:
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