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Avery Point_ZBaumann

The fact that rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations gradually erode average oceanic pH, carbonate saturation states, and buffering capacity has greatly heightened concerns about impacts on marine organisms and ecosystems. A whole new sub-field of oce
by

Hannes Baumann

on 24 October 2014

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Transcript of Avery Point_ZBaumann

Anthropocene - a new epoch and new problems: couple examples
Zofia and Hannes Baumann

St.Johns (2001-2002)
Hamburg (2002-2008)
2008-2014
UConn Avery Point (2014)
Transatlantic
migrations

Planetary boundaries & the emergence of a new research
Why care about ocean pH?
Impacts of pH on living organisms is not always black and white!
Why are responses to CO2 so different?
2. Most organisms don't live in an 'average open ocean'
Well....It is complicated
1. Unaccounted variables
3. Transgenerational effects
Unaccounted variables
CO2 x light
Increasing CO2 sensitivity with decreasing light levels
"... OA studies must better account for the potential moderating role of light upon growth/diversity if we are to move beyond the current ..."
Suggett et al. Coral Reefs 2013
CO2 x food
Ad libitum food may disguise CO2 effects on growth in survivors
"This could also explain the mostly neutral or positive growth effects of increasing CO2 levels reported by other studies on fish early life stages ..."
Murray et al. MEPS 2014
Most organisms don't live in an 'average open ocean'
The majority of ecologically and economically important marine organisms spend all or part of their life in coastal environments
(Hendriks et al. 2010)
Researching coastal environment

“… most OA experiments to date have only considered the impacts on ‘adults’ or ‘larvae’, ignoring the potential link between the two life-history stages and possible carry-over effects that may be passed from adult to offspring”
(Parker et al. 2012)
Laboratory evidence that parental CO2 exposure influences offspring sensitivity (clownfish, oyster)
Could it be important in the wild?
Offspring sensitivity to ocean acidification changes seasonally in a coastal marine fish
Murray, Malvezzi, Gobler & Baumann MEPS Feature May 2014
Offsping from a wild population
Experiments covered the entire spawning season
control - 1,000 - 2,000 ppm CO2
optimal temperature!
Atlantic Silverside (M. menidia)
Important forage fish
Parallel monitoring of pH in the spawning habitat
Field sampling + laboratory experiments + monitoring
Transgenerational plasticity to high CO2 is not just a laboratory phenomenon, it may be a common adaptive strategy in coastal environments
Detecting the Unexpected:
A Research Framework for Ocean Acidification
Catherine A. Pfister,
Andrew Esbaugh, Christina Frieder, Hannes Baumann, Emily Bockmon, Meredith White, Brendan Carter, Heather Benway, Carol Blanchette, Emily Carrington, James McClintock, Daniel McCorkle, Wade McGillis, T. Aran Mooney, Patrizia Ziveri
Second U.S. Ocean Acidification Principal Investigators' Meeting
Gallaudet University's Kellogg Conference Center, Washington, DC
September 17-20 2013
"The first key observation from other ecological studies is that assays and experiments with single species do not necessarily predict the features of multi-species systems."
Nitrogen fixation
Fish species near power plant
Schiel et al. 2004
Tilman et al. 1996
"A second key observation is that structural and functional properties of a system may not respond similarly."
Primary producers in lakes:
Schindler et al. 1985
Species composition changed, but not their productivity
Acid rain
"We need to ask how ecosystem function changes with OA, including any direct or indirect effects on the fitness of key species."
Presently, the research efforts and thus understanding of the key OA linkages are unevenly distributed.
well understood
Strong current research programs / gains in understanding
poorly understood/funded
poorly understood/funded
Rockstroem et al.
Nature
2009 "A safe operating space for humanity"

Hofmann et al. PLOS One 2011
Hofmann et al. PLOS One 2011
Hofmann et al. PLOS One 2011
Hofmann et al. PLOS One 2011
Melzner et al. Mar Biol 2012
Environmental Science & Technology 48, 2014

Fukushima accident in 2011 - a case of man-made disaster
What happened to all the man-made radioactivity?
some was taken away by ocean currents and some is absorbed by the seaed
Radioactivity in locally caught fish
Summary
We have entered new epoch Anthropocene (Greek roots: anthropo- "human" and -cene "new"
In Anthropocene, we have pushed the boundaries of our planet by creating e.g. ocean acidification or by polluting biosphere with chemicals
New concept: "transgenerational plasticity"

New good thing coming out of a disaster - radioactive tracer for fish migrations
Full transcript