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Ernest Rutherford: Atomic Theory
Transcript of Ernest Rutherford: Atomic Theory
Introduction to Rutherford
Rutherford VS Scientists Before Him
Gold Foil Experiment
Structure of Atom
(Results from Rutherfords Experiment )
Chemist and physicist Ernest Rutherford was born August 30, 1871, in Spring Grove, New Zealand
In 1908, Rutherford was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on the transmutation of elements and the chemistry of radioactive material.
Ernest Rutherford was raised on a farm in rural Spring Grove, on the South Island of New Zealand .
He was one of 12 siblings that lived in poverty on a farm.
Since his family was struggling financialy, Rutherford found inventive ways of overcoming the challenges, to earn funds for hobbies.
At age 10, Rutherford was handed out his first science book which inspired his very first science experiment.
Scientists before Rutherford weren't as successful as he was.
They were all very close to finding all the parts of the atom but Ernest Rutherford was the first person in history who actually developed the idea of the nucleus and the first to find all the basic parts of the atom.
Unlike all the other scientist Rutherford showed unfaltering determination.In the early 20th century, scientists were struggling to understand the structure of atoms. They only had parts of the answer.
In 1917, Ernest Rutherford "split the atom" discovering that atoms are made of more than one "part". This is important because we learned that we are able to split atoms to make different elements.
The element 'rutherfordium' was named in Rutherford’s honor.
By 1919 he had made another monumental discovery: how to artificially cause a nuclear reaction in a stable element.
Nuclear reactions were Rutherford’s main focus for most of his scientific career.
Rutherford overturned Thomson's model in 1911 with his well-known gold foil experiment in which he demonstrated that the atom has a small, dense nucleus.
Rutherford had made the "Atomic Planetary Model" off these conclusions from the Gold Foil Experiment:
Since most of the alpha particles passed straight through the gold foil without any deflection, most of the space within the atoms is empty.
Since some of the alpha particles (which are big in size) were deflected by large angles or bounced backwards, they must have approached some positively charged region responsible for the deflection. This positively charged region is now called the nucleus.
Even though very few alpha particles went through the processe of deflection, it was concluded that the volume occupied by the central region ( nucleus ) is very small.
1871- Born at Spring Grove (now Brightwater), Nelson Province, New Zealand, 30th Aug 1871. 1877-83:
1889- Won a University of New Zealand Junior Scholarship.
of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
1892- Completed Bachelor of Arts Degree in Science
1893- Completed MA with double First Class Honours; in Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, and in Physical Science.
1894- Completed Bachelor of Science in Chemistry and Geology and developed a magnetic detector of very short pulses.
1898- Discovers rays from radioactive materials are of two main types, which he names alpha and beta.
1899- Discovers a radioactive gas, later to be named radon.
1904- Awarded the Rumford Medal, his first major science prize.
1908- Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
1911- Announces the nuclear model of the atom.
1914- Knighted. Now Sir Ernest Rutherford.
1917- Becomes the world's first successful alchemist, changing nitrogen into oxygen (he splits the atom).
1920- Predicts the existence of the neutron.
1925-1930: President of the Royal Society of London.
1937- Died Oct 19th, 1937. Ashes interred in Westminister Abbey.
Rutherford was awarded with countless honors during his career, including several honorary degrees and fellowships from organizations such as the Institution of Electrical Engineers.
The fact is that a scientist such as Rutherford cannot be called a fake after having achieved so much and getting the respect of many scientists of his time and after his time. Rutherfords ideas are still even used even though now they have technology.
Back then people didnt have such advanced technology they have now a days but even without technology like they have now a days Rutherford found one of the most important parts of the atom...... THE NUCLEUS. WHAT A FEAT.
Thank you for listening
A particle accelerator shoots a beam of alpha particles at a piece of gold foil.
He observed some of the alpha particles deflect off the gold foil.
He also saw that some of the particles went straight through the foil