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Tourette's Syndrome

By: Charlotte Wilson and Sydney White

Charlotte Wilson

on 14 December 2012

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Transcript of Tourette's Syndrome

Tourette's Syndrome By: Sydney White and Charlotte Wilson Symptoms Symptoms of Tourette’s syndrome (TS) can be simple or complex. Simple tics can be displayed as simple motor tics which are involuntary movements which involve only one muscle group or as simple vocal tics which are noises made my moving air through the nose or mouth. Complex tics can be displayed as complex motor tics and complex vocal tics. Complex motor tics are involuntary muscle movements involving more than one muscle group and can be a combination of many simple tics. Complex vocal tics involve words phrases or sentences. • Irregular eye blinking/ other eye movements
• Facial grimacing
• Shoulder shrugging and head or shoulder jerking Simple motor tics can include: Simple vocal tics can include: • Repetitive throat- clearing
• Sniffing
• Grunting sounds
• Snorting Complex motor tics include: • Hopping, jumping, bending or twisting
• Sniffing
• Touching objects Complex vocal tics include: • Echolalia (repeating words or phrases of others)
• Coprolalia (uttering swear words) Treatments Inheritance Tourette’s syndrome is an inherited neurological disorder discovered by a French doctor named George- Albert- Edouard- Brutus- Gilles- de la- Tourette. He published an account of nine patients with Tourette's in 1885. The possibility that movement disorders, including Tourette syndrome, might have an organic origin was raised when an encephalitis epidemic from 1918–1926 led to a consecutive epidemic of tic disorders. Research in 1972 advanced the argument that Tourette's is a neurological rather than psychological disorder. Since the 1990s a more neutral view of Tourette's has emerged, in which biological vulnerability and adverse environmental events are seen to interact. History At one point people firmly believed that Tourette’s syndrome was an autosomal dominant disorder which suggests that one mutated copy of a gene in each cell would be sufficient to cause the condition. Several decades of research have shown that this is not necessarily the case. Although the basic cause of TS is unknown, current research suggests that there is an abnormality in the gene(s) affecting the brain’s metabolism of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters are chemicals in the brain that carry signals from one nerve cell to another. The chance of inheriting Tourette’s is 50/50. Males seem to be about a 75% more likely to get Tourette’s than females. If both parents have Tourette’s then the chance of the offspring getting the disorder is usually 100%. Genes Involved One genetic theory of Tourette’s is the mutations involving the SLITRK1 gene. It has been identified in a small number of people with Tourette syndrome. This gene provides instructions for making a protein that is active in the brain. The SLITRK1 protein probably plays a role in the development of nerve cells, including the growth of specialized extensions (axons and dendrites) that allow each nerve cell to communicate with nearby cells. It is unclear how mutations in the SLITRK1 gene can lead to this disorder.
There is strong evidence that Tourette syndrome is passed down through families, although the gene has not yet been found. The syndrome may be linked to problems in certain areas of the brain, and the chemical substances (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) that help nerve cells talk to one another. Current Studies Currently, NIH-funded investigators are conducting a variety of large-scale genetic studies. Rapid advances in the technology of gene discovery will allow for genome-wide screening approaches in TS, and finding a gene or genes for TS would be a major step toward understanding genetic risk factors. In addition, understanding the genetics of TS genes may: strengthen clinical diagnosis, improve genetic counseling, lead to the clarification of pathophysiology, and provide clues for more effective therapies.
Other studies constantly going on include: neuroimaging, neuropathy, clinical trials, epidemiology and clinical science. There are several approaches people take when thinking of which treatment to use on the person with Tourette’s. Below I will list three different sections of treatment. Medication
Foods to avoid/supplements
other methods Medications •Medication: Haloperidol, Pimozide, Fluphena, Clonidine. Unfortunately there can be many side effects which include: dizziness, drowsiness, difficulty urinating, sleep disturbances, headache, anxiety, muscle spasm/stiffness, shaking (tremor), restlessness, mask-like facial expression and drooling. Foods to avoid/ Supplements Avoid eating certain foods: some people have found that taking out dairy and wheat from their diets greatly decreased the amount of tics the person with the disorder was having. No sugar, no caffeine, no white flour or other refined foods. Avoid grains, identify and address food allergies and food sensitivities, and eat organic foods. Also, some supplements people take are B-complex supplements, Magnesium, Omega-3 fatty acids, and Scutellaria lateriflora. •Lastly, some other methods of controlling tics are: Natural and homeopathic remedies, counseling and psychotherapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, habit reversal training, and various relaxation options. Other methods Interesting Information It has been found that children with Tourette’s syndrome in some cases had higher IQ scores than predicted by statistical models, and some may be unusually gifted!
Most people with Tourette’s disorder don’t need any medication what so ever.
People with TS live as long as anyone else and there is no danger to having Tourette’s syndrome.
Generation One Tourettes Punnett Square Gen 1 Gen 2 Gen 3 Tourettes Pedigree Chart Works Cited Tourette's Syndrome (TS) is an autosomal dominant disorder that causes involuntary actions such as, waving arms and vocal sounds (anything from echoing what people say to blurting out obscenities). It causes tics by altering the way the parts of the brain (thalamus, basal ganglia, and frontal cortex) control all your actions. What is Tourette's Syndrome? "3 Ways to Treat Tourette's Syndrome Naturally." LIVESTRONG.COM. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.
"Child Development Institute Parenting Today." Child Development Institute Parenting Today. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.
"HALOPERIDOL - ORAL (Haldol) Side Effects, Medical Uses, and Drug Interactions." MedicineNet. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.
"Tourette Syndrome." - Genetics Home Reference. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.
"Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet." : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.
"Tourette Syndrome." Tourette Syndrome. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. Diagnosis of Tourette's Syndrome To be diagnosed with Tourette’s Syndrome there is no specific test. Instead doctors observe the history of symptoms. If motor and vocal tics have been present intermittently every day for a year then the diagnosis of Tourette’s Syndrome can be made. There must not be a break in tics for more than three months. In order for the diagnosis to be credible one must not be over 18 years of age, or the tics must not be caused by any medications. Tourettes Syndrome can be associated with other diagnoses such as OCD, ADHD and Autism. Doctors can determine whether tics come from Tourette's Syndrome or are a symptom of other diagnostics by taking blood samples and looking at symptoms. Digital image. Google, n.d. Web. <http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=tourettes&num=10&hl=en&tbo=d&biw=1017&bih=501&tbm=isch&tbnid=mnn_mCqRhgvIeM:&imgrefurl=http://www.inquisitr.com/180502/12-teen-students-come-down-with-tourettes-like-illness/&docid=HNv5RH0q8AJptM&imgurl=http://cdn.inquisitr.com/wp-content/2012/01/tourettes.jpg&w=450&h=471&ei=-ZDKUM3JFoLsqwHJ6YGoDQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=475&vpy=146&dur=83&hovh=230&hovw=219&tx=84&ty=118&sig=109288381471470788834&page=1&tbnh=142&tbnw=135&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:0,i:155>.
"Genetics & Research." Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada. N.p., 2012. Web. 13 Dec. 2012.
"Google Images." Google Images. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. <http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=tourettes>.
"Neuroscience for Kids - Tourette Syndrome." Neuroscience for Kids - Tourette Syndrome. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. <http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ts.html>. Tourettes is a recessive trait- t Some advantages of having tourette's include enhanced cognitive control in young people, as they may learn to ‘camouflage’ tics, mastering great mental control.
In 1992, an article was written in the British Medical Journal, speculating that Mozart had Tourette Syndrome.
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