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High MIddle Ages

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Donna Wright

on 7 December 2012

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Transcript of High MIddle Ages

High Middle Ages
1000-1200 REVIVAL OF TRADE NEW TOWNS GUILDS towns began to desire a direct legal relationship with the king instead of the local lord
towns had to pay for this right - pay the lord for his loss and pay the king for the privilege - called a Charter
Charters granted townsmen the power to direct their own affairs and to tax themselves in ways that would not hurt trade trade unions
controlled their trade (blacksmiths, cloth makers, bricklayers, etc)
controlled merchant groups (shopkeepers, traders, bankers, etc.)
set prices and quality levels for products and services Viking and Magyar invasions had come to an end
travel was now safer
Egypt and the Byzantine empire began to trade with Europe again
new towns were established as trade grew Apprentice - studied with a master for several years
Journeymen - more privileges, cannot own a business, works on a masterwork for approval of masters
Master - someone who can produce a work approved by other masters - can open own business MONASTICISM PAPAL AUTHORITY VS. HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR Benedictine Monks Education Scholasticism Church gained power through monasteries
lords also wanted monasteries on their land because they provided social welfare, trade, learning and prestige to their land
Question of control - would monks be under the lord's supervision, the bishop's or the pope's? DECLINE OF SERFDOM by 13th century
if you lived in a free village or town for a year you were free
provided cheap labor supply
many lords then began to accept money rent for peasant labor services
lords then had more money to spend on luxury goods new social class emerged - bourgeoisie
lived in towns; engaged in commerce and industry, not agriculture Monasteries spread Christianity and provided:
1. schools for the young
2. hospitality for travelers
3. hospitals for sick
4. education on carpentry and weaving
5. education on improvements in agriculture Pope Gregory VII
believed he had been chosen by God to reform the Church
goal - eliminate lay investiture
believed the Church had the right to appoint clergy and run its own affairs - if rulers did not accept this, the pope would remove them Pope Gregory VII vs. HRE Henry IV
Gregory calls for an end to lay investiture
HRE Henry IV refused to follow the decree
Reached an agreement in 1122 - Concordant of Worms: bishop in Germany 1st elected by Church and then paid homage to the king Saint Benedict
est. 6th century
wrote a set of rules
rules used by other monastic groups Cistercian Monks founded in 1098 by a groups of monks unhappy with the discipline at their Benedictine monastery
spread rapidly throughout Europe
ate simple diet, only had one robe, eliminated all decorations, spent more time in prayer and manual labor - fewer hours at religious service Franciscan Monks 13th century founded by St. Francis of Assisi
lived among people
preached repentance
aided the poor
missionaries Dominican Monks founded by Spanish priest Dominic de Guzman
goal: defend the church against heresy (denial of basic Church doctrines)
believed that a new religious order of men who lived lives of poverty and were capable of preaching effectively would best be able to attack heresy Inquisition Method of the Church to discover and deal with heretics
a court or Holy Office to find and try heretics
used torture to gain confessions
those who confessed did penance
relapsing heretics were subject to execution Universities - educational guilds that produced education and trained individuals
studied grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy
listened to lectures, no exams
received a degree after an oral exam by a committee
could get degrees in law, medicine, or theology
took 10 years
could receive your doctorate philosophical and theological system
tried to reconcile faith and reason - show that what you accept on faith is in harmony with what can be learned through reason and experience
goal - harmonize Church teachings with Greek philosophers Thomas Aquinas wrote Summa Theologica - best known Scholastic work of the Middle Ages Vernacular Literature literature written in everyday speech Architecture Medieval Art England 1066 William of Normandy invaded England and defeated King Harold at the Battle of Hastings
William the Conqueror crowned King of England
Norman knights were given fiefs; English nobles had to swear an oath of loyalty Domesday Book
1st census since Roman times Henry II enlarged the power of the monarch
increased the number of trials tried in the king's court
placed royal courts under a body of common law
imposed royal control over the Church
conflict with Thomas a Becket
Becket is murdered Magna Carta English nobles resented the growth of the kings power under King John
1215 rebelled and forced John to sign the Magna Carta - 1st attempt to limit a kings power Parliament Edward I - 13th century
2 knights from every county, two people from every town, all nobles and bishops
eventually nobles and bishops formed the House of Lords and the knights and townspeople formed the House of Commons
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