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DID (Multiple Personality Disorder)

To inform of the many sides of dissociative identity disorder.

Solange Gourd

on 15 June 2011

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Transcript of DID (Multiple Personality Disorder)

Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple personality disorder) "A. The presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states (each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self).

B. At least two of these identities or personality states recurrently take control of the person's behavior.

C. Inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.

D. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., blackouts or chaotic behavior during Alcohol Intoxication) or a general medical condition (e.g., complex partial seizures). Note: In children, the symptoms are not attributable to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play." DSM-IV Classification: In Kamloops: The Kamloops branch of the Canadian Mental Health Association
857 Seymour St.
Kamloops, B.C. (250)-374-0440 kamloops@cmha.bc.ca Causes As is the case for most mental disorders, researchers have a vague idea what causes DID. Again, as is the case for most mental disorders, causes are likely a combination of biological and environmental factors working together. Possible causes include: Trauma during childhood, generally extreme, repetitive physical, sexual and/or emotional abuse Recurring, life-threatening disturbances at sensitive developmental stages (before the age of nine) Lack of a supporting or comforting person to counteract abusiveness Insufficient childhood nurturing and an innate ability to dissociate memories or experiences from consciousness Children with frightening and unpredictable parents can become dissociative. Dissociation for these children becomes a safety blanket: a coping mechanism to deal with trauma. Symptoms depression mood swings suicidal tendencies paranoia sleep disorders (insomnia, night terrors, sleepwalking) alcohol or drug abuse depersonalization/derealisation auditory of personalities in head headaches amnesia time-loss trances out of body experiences feeling compelled to do something he or she would not generally do Onset: The onset occurs during developmental stages of childhood, potentially between 3-9 years of age. *Note: there is no adult onset, as only children have the mental flexibility to fracture off from their core personalities Dissociative identity disorder
by ~juicyeye.deviantart.com Treatment The main treatment used for DID is psychotherapy, and the utilization of hypnosis. The ultimate goal is to contact as many alters as possible to find out their roles, and establish communication between them to eventually unify them. May focus on resolving symptoms of co-morbid disorders, prescribing medication such as anti-depressants anti-anxiety medication etc. Adjunctive therapy may be suggested to resolve current stress in life case study Prognosis DID does not resolve spontaneously, and symptoms may vary over time. Prognosis would probably be expected to take several years. An earlier diagnosis and treatment would obviously lead to better prognosis. Those with co-morbid disorders, addictions, personality, mood or eating disorders generally have a slower and more complicated recovery. Those still with their abusers suffer the longest prognosis. They will most likely be the ones treated solely for their symptoms rather than attempting personality integration. These patients often are most likely to attempt suicide. No systematic studies of long-term outcomes of DID exist, currently. Sufferers may be bothered less by symptoms into middle age. Relief may begin around late 40s. In North America and Europe, as many as 5% of patients in psychiatric wards have undiagnosed dissociative identity disorder. For every man diagnosed, there are 8 and 9 women, however, among children it’s 1:1. Around 20% of recorded cases are male. There is an average of around 15 alternate personalities per person. In recorded cases, there have been up to over a hundred. Source: DSM-IV, APA, 1994 “Jonah, a 27 year old black male, was suffering from severe headaches. He reported that they were associated with unbearable pain and were lasting for longer and longer periods of time. Furthermore, he couldn’t seem to remember things that happened while he had the headache except that sometimes a great deal of time had passed. Finally, when he could stand it no longer after a particularly bad night, he arranged for admission to the local hospital. What really prompted Jonah to come to the hospital, however, was what other people told him he did while he had his severe headaches. For example, on the night before coming to the hospital he was told that he engaged in a violent fight with another man and attempted to stab him. Shortly thereafter he fled the scene and engaged in a high-speed chase while being shot at by the police. During a previous headache his wife told him he had chased her as well as his 3-year-old daughter out of the house, threatening them with a butcher knife. During his headaches, and while he was violent, he called himself Usoffa Abdulla, son of Omega. Among other incidents in his past for which he had no memory was an occasion when he attempted to drown a man in a river. The man survived, and Jonah escaped by swimming a quarter of a mile upstream. He woke up the next morning in his own bed, soaking wet, with no memory of the incident. “During his hospitalization the staff was able to observe Jonah’s behaviour directly during these headaches as well as during other periods in which he had no memory. They noticed that he responded to different names at these times, acted differently, and generally seemed to be a totally different person. During this period they observed three separate identities or alters in addition to Jonah. Alters is the shorthand term for the different identities or personalities in DID. The first alter was Sammy. Sammy seemed ration, calm, and totally in control of the situation. The second alter was called King Young. King Young seemed to be in charge of all sexual activity and was particularly interested in having as many heterosexual interactions as possible. The third alter was the violent and dangerous Usoffa Abdulla. “As is characteristic of these cases, Jonah had no knowledge of the other three alters. Sammy, the detached rational alter, was most aware of the other personalities. King Young knew a little bit about the other alters but his knowledge was only indirect, as was the knowledge of Usoffa Abdulla. “Sammy first appeared when Jonah was approximately 6 years of age. Sammy came out immediately after Jonah witnessed his mother stabbing his father. When alone, Jonah’s mother would dress him in girl’s clothing on occasion. During one of these occasions and shortly after Sammy emerged, King Young appeared. When Jonah was 9 or 10 he was accosted and brutally attacked by a group of white youths. At this point Usoffa Abdulla emerged, reporting that his sole reason for existence was to protect Jonah.” The Case of Jonah Other info The main character in the 1999 film (and book by the same name written by Chuck Palahniuk)"Fight Club" had an undiagnosed case of DID. It was hinted to throughout the entire movie in showing that he had symptoms such as headaches, lapses in memory, and a bad case of insomnia The only alter present was that of Tyler Durden: a tough, cool persona that the narrator always wanted to have. It is implied that Tyler Durden existed for only a year before the movie takes place, and it is only once the narrator goes through a period of intense stress that he meets his alter and learns of his existence. The movie hinted at the narrator having a childhood full of neglect from his father. This could be a potential reason behind his dissociations. In the end the narrator was able to achieve integration by shooting himself, killing the Tyler Durden persona. References Dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder). (2009, September 16). In WebMD. Retrieved June 4, 2011, from http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/dissociative-identity-disorder-multiple-personality-disorder Dissociative identity disorder. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved June 4, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissociative_Identity_Disorder Dissociative disorders. (2011, March 3). In Mayo Clinic. Retrieved June 4, 2011, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/dissociative-disorders/DS00574/DSECTION=symptoms Swartz, A. (2001, December). Dissociative identity disorder. In AllPsych ONLINE. Retrieved June 8, 2011, from http://allpsych.com/journal/did.html Frey, R. J. (n.d.). Dissociation and dissociative disorders. In Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. Retrieved June 4, 2011, from http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-Fi/Dissociation-and-dissociative-disorders.html Barlow, D, & Durand, M. (1995). Abnormal psychology: an integrative approach. U.S.: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
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