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skin structure, growth, and nutrition

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by

Rhonda Lewis

on 3 February 2015

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Transcript of skin structure, growth, and nutrition

CHAPTER 7
SKIN STRUCTURE, GROWTH
AND NUTRITION

"THE HAPPIEST LIFE IS THAT WHICH CONSTANTLY EXERCISES AND EDUCATES WHAT IS BEST IN US."
ANATOMY OF THE SKIN
DERMATOLOGY
DERMATOLOGIST
COSMETOLOGIST
ETHETICIAN
MEDICAL BRANCH OF SCIENCE THAT DEALS WITH THE STUDY OF SKIN AND ITS NATURE, FUNCTION, DISEASES, AND TREATMENT
PHYSICIAN ENGAGED IN THE SCIENCE OF TREATING THE SKIN, ITS STRUCTURES, FUNCTIONS, AND DISEASES
ALLOWED TO CLEAN SKIN
PRESERVE THE HEALTH, AND BEAUTIFY THE SKIN DEPENDING UPON THE LAWS OF THEIR STATE
SPECIALIST IN CLEANSING, BEAUTIFYING, PRESERVATION OF THE HEALTH OF THE SKIN ON THE ENTIRE BODY INCLUDING THE FACE AND NECK
IN SOME STATES COSMETOLOGIST MUST HOLD AN ETHETICS LICENSE TO PERFORM THESE SERVICES
SKIN SPECIFICS
COVERS OVER 3000 SQUARE INCHES
WEIGHS ABOUT NINE POUNDS
PROTECTS MUSCLES, BONES, AND NERVES
BARRIER AGAINST THE environment
EYELIDS HAVE THE THINNEST SKIN
SOLES OF FEET ARE THE THICKEST
CONTINUED PRESSURE CAUSES CALLUSES
HEALTHY SKIN CHARACTERISTICS
HEALTHY SKIN IS FREE OF ALL VISIBLE SIGNS OF INFECTION, DISEASE, OR INJURY
SLIGHTLY MOIST
SOFT AND FLEXIBLE
SMOOTH AND FINE-GRAINED
POSSESSES SLIGHTLY ACID REACTION
REACTS QUICKLY TO THE TOUCH
APPENDAGE OF THE SKIN
NAILS
SWEAT AND OIL GLANDS
HAIR
EPIDERMIS
DERMIS
TWO DIVISIONS OF THE SKIN
EPIDERMIS
OUTERMOST LAYER OF THE SKIN;
CONTAINS NO BLOOD VESSELS BUT HAS MANY NERVE ENDINGS
STRATUM CORNEUM
HORNY LAYER; OUTERMOST LAYER OF THE EPIDERMIS
SCALE-LIKE CELLS
CONSTANTLY SHEDDING AND REPLACING
CELLS CONTAIN PROTEIN KERATIN WHICH COMBINES WITH A THIN COVERING OF OIL TO MAKE THE SKIN WATER-RESISTANT
STRATUM LUCIDUM
CLEAR; TRANSPARENT LAYER UNDER SKIN SURFACE
CONSISTIS OF SMALL CELLS THAT ARE SHED FROM THE SKIN SURFACE LAYER
STRATUM GRANULOSUM
GRANULAR LAYER
CELLS LOOK LIKE GRANULES
DYING AS THEY ARE BEING PUSHED UP TO THE SURFACE TO REPLACE DEAD CELLS THAT ARE SHED FROM THE SKIN SURFACE LAYER
STRATUM SPINOSUM
JUST ABOVE BASAL CELL LAYER
SPINEY LAYER
PROCESS OF SHEDDING OF SKIN CELLS BEGINS HERE
STRATUM GERMINATIVUM
BASAL CELL LAYER
DEEPEST LAYER
PRODUCES NEW EPIDERMAL CELLS
RESPONSIBLE FOR GROWTH OF EPIDERMAL LAYER
SPECIAL CELLS CALLED MELANOCYTES; PRODUCE DARK SKIN PIGMENT CALLED MELANIN
DERMIS
UNDERLYING OR INNER LAYER OF SKIN; ALSO CALLED DERMA, CORIUM, CUTIS, OR TRUE SKIN
25 TIMES THICKER THEN EPIDERMIS
HIGHLY SENSITIVE AND CONTAINS BLOOD VESSELS, LYMPH VESSELS, NERVES, SWEAT, AND OIL GLANDS, HAIR FOLLICLES, ARRECTOR PILI MUSCLE, PAPILLAE
DIVIDED INTO TWO LAYERS
PAPILLARY LAYER
OUTER LAYER OF DERMIS
LYING DIRECTLY BENEATH EPIDERMIS
SMALL CONED-SHAPED PROJECTIONS (CALLED PAPILLEA)OF ELASTIC TISSUE THAT POINT UPWARD TO EPIDERMIS
SOME CONTAIN LOOPED CAPILLARIES
OTHERS CONTAIN NERVE FIBER ENDINGS FOR THE SENSE OF TOUCH CALLED TACTILE CORPUSCLES; THEY CONTAIN MELANIN
RECTICULAR LAYER
DEEPER LAYER OF THE DERMIS
CONTAINS FAT CELLS, BLOOD AND LYMPH VESSELS, SWEAT AND OIL GLANDS, HAIR FOLLICLES, AND ARRECTOR PILI MUSCLE
SUPPLIES SKIN WITH OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS AND CONTAINS NUMEROUS STRUCTURES IN ITS NETWORK
SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE
FATTY LAYER FOUND BELOW DERMIS
CALLED ADIPOSE TISSUE OF SUBCUTIS TISSUE
VARIES IN THICKNESS ACCORDING TO AGE, SEX, AND GENERAL HEALTH
GIVES SMOOTHNESS AND CONTOUR TO THE BODY, CONTAINS FATS FOR ENERGY, AND ACTS AS A PROTECTIVE CUSHION FOR OUTER SKIN
HOW IS SKIN NOURISHED?
BLOOD SUPPLIES NUTRIENTS OR MOLECULES FROM FOOD SUCH AS, PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATES, AND FATS TO THE SKIN.
NUTRIENTS ARE REQUIRED FOR CELLS LIFE, REPAIR AND GROWTH
NERVES OF THE SKIN
MOTOR NERVE FIBERS
SENSORY NERVE FIBERS
SECRETORY NERVE FIBERS
REACT TO HEAT, COLD, TOUCH, PRESSURE, AND PAIN
SENDS THE MESSAGE TO THE BRAIN
FOUND IN PAPILLARY LAYER
ABUNDANT IN FINGER TIPS
REGULATE THE EXCRETION OF PERSPIRATION FROM SWEAT GLANDS AND CONTROL THE FLOW OF SEBUM TO SURFACE OF THE SKIN
SENSE OF TOUCH
PAPILLARY LAYER
PROVIDE BODY WITH SENSE OF TOUCH
SENSATIONS SUCH AS
TOUCH, PAIN, HEAT, COLD, AND PRESSURE
SKIN COLOR
MELANIN
HEREDITY
PHEOMELANIN
EUMELANIN
RED TO YELLOW IN COLOR
DARK BROWN TO BLACK
TINY GRAINS OF PIGMENT DEPOSITED IN THE STRATUM GERMINATIVUM OF THE EPIDERMIS AND THE PAPILLARY LAYER OF DERMIS
VARIOUS AMONG RACES AND NATIONALITIES
DARK SKIN CONTAINS MORE MELANIN AND LIGHTER SKIN CONTAINS LESS
STRENGTH AND FLEXIBILITY OF SKIN
TWO STRUCTURES, COLLAGEN AND ELASTIN, MAKE UP 70% OF THE DERMIS AND GIVE STRENGTH, FORM, ADN FLEXIBILITY TO SKIN.
COLLAGEN
FIBROUS PROTEIN THAT GIVES SKIN FORM AND STRENGTH
HEALTHY COLLAGEN FIBERS ALLOW SKIN TO STRETCH AND CONTRACT
WEAKENED FIBERS CAUSE SKIN TO LOSE TONE, WRINKLE AND SAG
ELASTIN
A PROTEIN BASE SIMILAR TO COLLAGEN THAT FORMS ELASTIC TISSUE
GIVES SKIN FLEXIBILITY AND ELASTICITY
HELPS GIVE SKIN REGAIN ITS SHAPE EVEN AFTER STRETCHING AND EXPANDING
GLANDS OF THE SKIN
SKIN CONTAINS TWO TYPES OF DUCT GLANDS THAT EXTRACT MATERIAL FROM BLOOD TO FORM NEW SUBSTANCES
SUDORIFEROUS OR SWEAT GLAND
TUBE-LIKE DUCT THAT TERMINATES AT THE SKINS SURFACE TO FORM A SWEAT PORE
MORE NUMBEROUS ON THE FOREHEAD, PALMS, SOLES, AND ARMPITS
REGULATE BODY TEMPERATURE AND ELIMINATE WASTE
INCREASED HEAT, EXERCISE, EMOTIONS AND SOME DRUGS CAUSE INCREASED SWEATING
CONTROLLED BY NERVOUS SYSTEM
ONE TO TWO PINTS RELEASED DAILY
SEBACEOUS OR OIL GLANDS
TWO LITTLE SACS THAT OPEN INTO THE HAIR FOLLICLE

SECRETE SEBUM THAT LUBRICATES SKIN
PRESERVES SOFTNESS OF HAIR
FOUND EVERYWHERE ON THE BODY EXCEPT PALMS AND SOLES

WHEN DUCTS GET CLOGGED WITH HARDENED SEBUM AND THE DUCT BECOMES CLOGGED, A COMEDO IS FORMED
ACNE
PAPULE
PUSTULE
ACNE: DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY CHRONIC INFLAMMATION OF THE SEBACEOUS GLANDS FROM RETAINED SECRETIONS
PAPULE: SMALL, ROUND ELEVATION ON THE SKIN THAT CONTAINS NO FLUID BUT MAY DEVELOP PUS
PUSTULE: INFLAMED PIMPLE CONTAINING PUS
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN
PROTECTION
PROTECTS FROM INJURY AND BACTERIAL
INVASION
SENSATION
RESPONDS TO HEAT, COLD, TOUCH,
PRESSURE, AND PAIN
HEAT REGULATION
PROTECTS THE BODY FROM THE
ENVIROMENT
EXCRETION
PERSPIRATION TAKES SALT AND OTHER
CHEMICALS WITH IT
SECRETION
LUBRICATES SKIN, KEEPS SOFT AND PLIABLE AND KEEPS HAIR SOFT
SUN DAMAGE
SUN IS THE GREATEST IMPACT ON HOW OUR SKIN AGES
80 TO 85% OF AGING IS FROM THE SUN
COLLAGEN AND ELASTIN FIBERS ARE NATURALLY WEAKENED AND HAPPENS AT A MUCH FASTER RATE WHEN EXPOSED TO UV RAYS
UV RAYS OF THE SUN REACH THE SKIN IN TWO DIFFERENT WAYS
UVA RAYS
UVB RAYS
UVA RAYS
"AGING RAYS"
95% OF THE SUNS RAYS THAT REACH THE EARTHS SURFACE
THESE RAYS PENETRATE DEEPER INTO SKINS LAYERS AND CAUSE CELL DEATH
ALTER DNA AND CAUSE SKIN CANCER
UVB
BURNING RAYS AND CAUSE BURNING OF SKIN
MELANIN IS DESIGNED TO HELP PROTECT THE SKIN
MELANIN CAN BE DESTROYED WHEN LARGE DOSES OF UV RAYS ARE ALLOWED TO PENETRATE THE SKIN
UVB RAYS DO NOT PENETRATE AS DEEP AS UVA RAYS THEY ARE MORE DAMAGING AND CAN DAMAGE THE EYES
POSITIVE NOTE UVB RAYS HELP WITH PROCESS OF VITAMIN D
HELPFUL TIPS
WEAR MOISTURIZE WITH AN SPF OF 30 ON ALL AREAS OF EXPOSURE
APPLY 20 TO 30 BEFORE SUN EXPOSURE
AVOID EXPOSURE DURING PEAK HOURS 10 AM TO 3 PM
SUNSCREEN SHOULD BE APPLIED EVERY 2 HOURS OR AFTER SWIMMING OR HEAVY SWEATING
FULL OR BROAD SPECTRUM TO FILTER OUT UVA AND UVB RAYS
ALWAYS CHECK EXPIRATION DATE
RED HEADS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO SUN DAMAGE
REMEMBER SUN LIGHT COMES THROUGH WINDOWS, AND UV RAYS ARE EVEN STRONGER THROUGH GLASS
WEAR SUNGLASSES TO PROTECT YOUR EYES AND AREA AROUND EYES
AVOID TANNING BEDS. RESEARCH SHOWS MORE AND MORE HOW DAMAGING TANNING BEDS ARE.
MANY MEDICATIONS AND TOPICAL PRODUCTS MAKE PEOPLE MORE SENSITIVE TO THE SUN
VITAMINS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
Vitamin A,C, D, and E have all been shown to have positivie effects on the skin's health when taken internally.
Vitamin A-overall health of skin and aids in health, function, and repair of skin cells; improves elasticity
Vitamin C-repair skin tissue. Accelerates skin's healing procesess and fight the aging process.
Vitamin D-enables the body to absorb and use calcium; promotes rapid healing of skin
Vitamin E-protects skin from harmful effects of the sun's UV light
WATER AND THE SKIN
50 TO 70% OF THE BODIES WEIGHT

SUSTAINS THE HEALTH OF THE CELLS

AIDES IN THE ELIMINATION OF TOXINS

REGULATES BODY TEMPERATURE

AIDS IN PROPER DIGESTION
WATER BENEFITS
MILD DEHYDRATION SLOWS THE METABOLISM BY 3%

DRINKING WATER REDUCES HUNGER PANGS

REDUCES CRACKED SKIN ON FEET AND LIPS

DEHYDRATION CAUSES FATIGUE

A 2% DROP IN BODY WATER CAN CAUSE FUZZY SHORT-TERM MEMORY LOSS
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