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Seven Basic Sentence Patterns

7 Basic Sentence Patterns
by

Allicia Nodurfth

on 9 September 2014

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Transcript of Seven Basic Sentence Patterns

7 Basic Sentence Patterns
1) Subject-Intransitive Verb (S-IV)
6) Subject-Linking Verb-Predicate Noun
(S-LV-PN)
2) Subject-Transitive Verb-Direct Object (S-TV-DO)
1) S-IV
2) S-TV-DO
3) S-TV-IO-DO
4) S-TV-DO-OC Subs. (Object Complement Substantive--aka: Noun)
5) S-TV-DO-OC Adj. (Object Complement Adjective)
6) S-LV-PN (Predicate Noun)
7) S-LV-PA (Predicate Adjective)
Conclusion
is here
Examples: Tim IS A secretary.
My relatives ARE obnoxious.
My friend HAS BEEN a jerk.
In this sentence pattern, the verb carries the action over from the subject and across to the receiver.
The smallest complete statement, or sentence.
S-V = Subject-Verb
Subject
Noun or pronoun which is
what the sentence is about
e.g.
The DOG barks.
SHE walks.
Verb
Word that indicates action or completes the statement about the subject and functions as the predicate of a sentence
e.g.
The dog BARKS.
She WALKS.
Predicate
The part of a sentence containing a verb and that says something about the subject.
Most sentences require
COMPLETORS, or words after the verb,
to make a complete statement.
This is not the case for S-IV sentences.
Look at these examples:
Since S-IV sentences don't require
COMPLETORS, verbs in these sentences
are called
INTRANSITIVE.
INTRANSITIVE VERBS
stand alone; they
do not contain other words in the predicate.
In other words, they stop after the verb with nowhere else to go. They are not in transit.
Snow fell.
The gray kitten has disappeared.
Joe was sweating profusely.
The besieged vessel slowly sank in the frigid Arctic waters.

We call this kind of verb a
TRANSITIVE VERB
.
TRANSITIVE VERBS
act as the middle man
between subject and object.
Direct Objects
Let's say Bobby kicks a ball.
"Bobby" is the noun, or subject.
"Kicks" is the verb, or what Bobby does.
"The ball" is the
DIRECT OBJECT
involved
in the action.

A
DIRECT OBJECT
is the
part of the predicate that is
affected by the subject's action.

The
DIRECT OBJECT
answers
the question "WHO?" or "WHAT?"
after a
TRANSITIVE VERB
.

Examples of S-TV-DO:

Christopher passed the bar examination.
The grizzly bear attacked the unsuspecting tourist.
The little boy resembles his father.
Linking verb
A
LINKING VERB
acts like an
=
that links a subject to a
PREDICATE NOUN
or a
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE
.
A sentence in which a
LINKING VERB
connects the subject to a
PREDICATE NOUN
.

Q: What is a
PREDICATE NOUN
?
A: A
PREDICATE NOUN
is a word or phrase in the predicate part of the sentence which
renames
the subject.)

7) Subject-Linking Verb-Predicate Adjective (S-LV-PA)
Predicate Adjectives
Q: What is a
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE
?

A: A
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE
is a word or phrase that provides a descriptive characteristic about the subject.
A sentence in which a
LINKING VERB
connects the subject to a
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE
that
describes
the subject.


This way to examples
John grew restless.
The ballerina was extraordinary.
3) Subject-TransitiveVerb-Indirect Object-Direct Object (S-TV-IO-DO)
This pattern often involves
verbs like: give, bring, tend, teach, lend, sell, etc.
Indirect object
Usually a person or living thing,
an
INDIRECT OBJECT
provides specificity,
or a destination, for the
DIRECT OBJECT
.
The
INDIRECT OBJECT
always follows a
TRANSITIVE VERB
and answers one of the following questions:
"To Whom?" "For Whom?"
"To What?" "For What?"
The
INDIRECT OBJECT
always comes before the
DIRECT OBJECT
in a sentence.

Example:
We gave the
waiter
a
tip
.

We gave A
TIP
(DO)

The
WAITER
(IO) is to whom we gave the tip.
4) Subject-Transitive Verb-Direct Object-Object Complement Substantive
(S-TV-DO-OC Subs.)
Predicate Noun
Q: What is a
PREDICATE NOUN
?

A: A
PREDICATE NOUN
is a word that follows a linking verb and renames the subject.
Let's Practice!
The theif handed the policeman the stolen necklace.

They gave their first child a very unusual name.

Mary's father bought her a new Mustang.
In this sentence pattern, an
OBJECT COMPLEMENT-SUBSTANTIVE
is used to
rename
a
DIRECT OBJECT
.
5) Subject-Transitive Verb-Direct Object-Object Complement Adjective
(S-TV-DO-OC Adj.)
In this sentence pattern, an
OBJECT COMPLEMENT ADJECTIVE

describes
a
DIRECT OBJECT
.
Examples:
Jerry called his classmate lazy.

My words made the stranger
nervous.

The natives considered bribery
acceptable.
HINT:
LINKING VERBS
often come in the form of be:
is, are, am, was, were, has been...and so on
Questions?
Examples:

The rehabilitated prisoner became the new Boy Scout leader.

Mary remains the apple of her father's eye.

Her favorite television show was Gilmore Girls.
Q: What is an
OBJECT COMPLEMENT-SUBSTANTIVE
?

A: An
OBJECT COMPLEMENT-SUBSTANTIVE
is a noun that completes the meaning of the sentence. The
OC-SUBS.
refers to the same thing as the
DIRECT OBJECT
.

Examples:

The executive committee made him chairman.

Bill's uncle considers him a saint.


Q: What is an
OBJECT COMPLEMENT-ADJECTIVE
?

A: An
OBJECT COMPLEMENT-ADJECTIVE
is an adjective that complements the
DIRECT OBJECT
by providing a description of it.
Full transcript