Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Physiologic Responses to Stressors

NRS 232 - Pathophysiology I
by

Katrina Dielman

on 9 February 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Physiologic Responses to Stressors

Physiologic Responses to Stressors
NRS 232 - Pathophysiology I
H-P-A Axis:
Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenocortical Axis
The "Hallmark" of Acute & Chronic Stress
S-A-M System:
Sympathetic Adrenomedullary System
"Fight or Flight"
Pathophysiological Consequences
of
Untreated
or
Prolonged Stress
Coronary heart disease
Hypertension
Stroke
Dysrhythmias
Obesity
Tension headaches
Backache
Autoimmune disease
It All Starts with

Stress

External

or

Internal
Limbic System
Infection
Ulcers
Bowel problems
Urinary problems
Eczema
Acne
Diabetes
Menstrual cycle disorders
Fatigue
Depression
Insomnia
External

Stressors
Environment
Social
Accidents
Internal

Stressors
Physical illness
Psychological
Emotional
Copstead, L. & Banasik, J. (2013).
Pathophysiology
(5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Felver, L. (2013). Online Materials:
PROP- Pathophysiology online.
Retrieved from https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Giddens, J. (2013).
Concepts for nursing practice
(1st ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
References
Norepinephrine
Target Tissues/Organs
S-A-M
System
H-P-A
Axis
RAS
Epinephrine > Norepinephrine
Cortisol + Aldosterone
"Threat Appraisal"
Perception and response depends upon developmental stage, previous experiences, concurrent stressors, resources, etc.
CRH
...and musculoskeletal response to stressors
Muscle Stretch Reflex
Afferent
- Stimulus from the periphery
(AKA the little rubber hammer hitting you right below your knee)
Somatosensory neurons carry stretching information from the
muscle spindle receptors
of the thigh muscle to the spinal cord or brain stem
Efferent
- Response to the periphery
(AKA your lower leg kicking out after being struck by the little rubber hammer)
Alpha motor neurons
are LMN that innervate skeletal muscle fibers and are stimulated to fire by stretching of the muscle spindle receptors
Gamma motor neurons
are LMN that innervate muscle spindles
Interestingly, the
limbic system
and the
reticular activating system

(RAS)
are thought to impact motor function.
The
RAS
can cause increased firing of the
gamma motor neurons
that innervate muscle spindles in response to stress, which may then be perceived as stress and continue a painful cycle.
The Stretch Reflex
Release of
CRH
Release of
ACTH
Cortisol

May synergize or antagonize the effects of catecholemines
Antiinflammatory role
Aldosterone
Mediator of relationship between psychological stress & heart disease
Norepinephrine
Constricts blood vessels
Reduces GI motility
Dilates pupils
Inhibits insulin secretion
Epinephrine
Cardiac performance
Glycogenolysis
Bronchodilation
CRH
Aldosterone
ADH
Effects of Stress on Body Systems
Neuroendocrine Response
"Proprioception"
Consider this quotation from William Shakespeare (
Hamlet, Act II, scene ii
; bold added for emphasis):

HAMLET:
Denmark's a prison.
ROSENCRANTZ:
Then is the world one.
HAMLET:
A goodly one, in which there are many confines, wards, and dungeons, Denmark being one o' the worst.
ROSENCRANTZ:
We think not so, my lord.
HAMLET:
Why then, 'tis none to you,
for there is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so
. To me it is a prison."

Explain to a classmate how this quotation applies to physiological responses to stressors.
What part of the brain does the thinking that "makes it so"?

"When I had that MRI, those banging noises drove me crazy!" said
Mr. Scaredycat
. "It sounded like the machine was coming in to get me and tear me apart." "Oh," said the man sitting next to him in the waiting room, "I pretended I was listening to a Lou Harrison percussion piece. It helped take my mind off my back pain."
Why did these two men respond so differently to the same stimuli?
What are the physiological mechanisms that link our interpretation of environmental stimuli and our physiological responses to them?
Mr. Jack D. Neck
had a mild whiplash injury of his neck in an automobile accident several months ago. "My neck does not hurt at all anymore unless my boss goes on a rampage at work," he says to his nurse practitioner. "Then my muscles tighten up like they did after the accident, and boy, does that hurt!" You are following the nurse practitioner for the day. After Mr. Neck leaves, the nurse practitioner asks you to explain the physiology behind Mr. Neck's report.
Explain, using appropriate technical terms.
Mr. Tryinghard
has Type II diabetes that is managed with oral medications and diet. "I do not understand it," he says. "I have been very good with my diet and my pills, but ever since my wife died 2 months ago, my blood sugar has been out of control. I am having enough trouble trying to manage four kids, the house, and my job without having to worry about getting the complications of long-term high blood sugar too! I sure would like to know why my sugar is running so high."
Reply as if you are talking directly to him.
Use some physiology, in terms appropriate for a layperson, in your answer.
Full transcript