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Physiologic Responses to Stressors
Transcript of Physiologic Responses to Stressors
NRS 232 - Pathophysiology I
Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenocortical Axis
The "Hallmark" of Acute & Chronic Stress
Sympathetic Adrenomedullary System
"Fight or Flight"
Coronary heart disease
It All Starts with
Menstrual cycle disorders
Copstead, L. & Banasik, J. (2014).
(5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Felver, L. (2013). Online Materials:
PROP- Pathophysiology online.
Retrieved from https://evolve.elsevier.com/
Giddens, J. (2017).
Concepts for nursing practice
(2nd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Epinephrine > Norepinephrine
Cortisol + Aldosterone
Perception and response depends upon developmental stage, previous experiences, concurrent stressors, resources, etc.
May synergize or antagonize the effects of catecholemines
Mediator of relationship between psychological stress & heart disease
Constricts blood vessels
Reduces GI motility
Inhibits insulin secretion
Effects of Stress on Body Systems
Consider this quotation from William Shakespeare (
Hamlet, Act II, scene ii
; bold added for emphasis):
Denmark's a prison.
Then is the world one.
A goodly one, in which there are many confines, wards, and dungeons, Denmark being one o' the worst.
We think not so, my lord.
Why then, 'tis none to you,
for there is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so
. To me it is a prison."
Explain to a classmate how this quotation applies to physiological responses to stressors.
What part of the brain does the thinking that "makes it so"?
"When I had that MRI, those banging noises drove me crazy!" said
. "It sounded like the machine was coming in to get me and tear me apart." "Oh," said
also sitting in the waiting room, "I pretended I was listening to a Lou Harrison percussion piece. It helped take my mind off my back pain."
Why did these two patients respond so differently to the same stimuli?
What are the physiological mechanisms that link our interpretation of environmental stimuli and our physiological responses to them?
has Type II diabetes that is managed with oral medications and diet. "I do not understand it,"
says. "I have been very good with my diet and my pills, but ever since my spouse died 2 months ago, my blood sugar has been out of control. I am having enough trouble trying to manage four kids, the house, and my job without having to worry about getting the complications of long-term high blood sugar too! I sure would like to know why my sugar is running so high."
Reply as if you are talking directly to
Use some physiology, in terms appropriate for a layperson, in your answer.