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Physiologic Responses to Stressors
Transcript of Physiologic Responses to Stressors
NRS 232 - Pathophysiology I
Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenocortical Axis
The "Hallmark" of Acute & Chronic Stress
Sympathetic Adrenomedullary System
"Fight or Flight"
Coronary heart disease
It All Starts with
Menstrual cycle disorders
Copstead, L. & Banasik, J. (2013).
(5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Felver, L. (2013). Online Materials:
PROP- Pathophysiology online.
Retrieved from https://evolve.elsevier.com/
Giddens, J. (2017).
Concepts for nursing practice
(2nd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Epinephrine > Norepinephrine
Cortisol + Aldosterone
Perception and response depends upon developmental stage, previous experiences, concurrent stressors, resources, etc.
...and musculoskeletal response to stressors
Muscle Stretch Reflex
- Stimulus from the periphery
(AKA the little rubber hammer hitting you right below your knee)
Somatosensory neurons carry stretching information from the
muscle spindle receptors
of the thigh muscle to the spinal cord or brain stem
- Response to the periphery
(AKA your lower leg kicking out after being struck by the little rubber hammer)
Alpha motor neurons
are LMN that innervate skeletal muscle fibers and are stimulated to fire by stretching of the muscle spindle receptors
Gamma motor neurons
are LMN that innervate muscle spindles
reticular activating system
are thought to impact motor function.
can cause increased firing of the
gamma motor neurons
that innervate muscle spindles in response to stress, which may then be perceived as stress and continue a painful cycle.
The Stretch Reflex
May synergize or antagonize the effects of catecholemines
Mediator of relationship between psychological stress & heart disease
Constricts blood vessels
Reduces GI motility
Inhibits insulin secretion
Effects of Stress on Body Systems
Consider this quotation from William Shakespeare (
Hamlet, Act II, scene ii
; bold added for emphasis):
Denmark's a prison.
Then is the world one.
A goodly one, in which there are many confines, wards, and dungeons, Denmark being one o' the worst.
We think not so, my lord.
Why then, 'tis none to you,
for there is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so
. To me it is a prison."
Explain to a classmate how this quotation applies to physiological responses to stressors.
What part of the brain does the thinking that "makes it so"?
"When I had that MRI, those banging noises drove me crazy!" said
. "It sounded like the machine was coming in to get me and tear me apart." "Oh," said the man sitting next to him in the waiting room, "I pretended I was listening to a Lou Harrison percussion piece. It helped take my mind off my back pain."
Why did these two men respond so differently to the same stimuli?
What are the physiological mechanisms that link our interpretation of environmental stimuli and our physiological responses to them?
Mr. Jack D. Neck
had a mild whiplash injury of his neck in an automobile accident several months ago. "My neck does not hurt at all anymore unless my boss goes on a rampage at work," he says to his nurse practitioner. "Then my muscles tighten up like they did after the accident, and boy, does that hurt!" You are following the nurse practitioner for the day. After Mr. Neck leaves, the nurse practitioner asks you to explain the physiology behind Mr. Neck's report.
Explain, using appropriate technical terms.
has Type II diabetes that is managed with oral medications and diet. "I do not understand it," he says. "I have been very good with my diet and my pills, but ever since my wife died 2 months ago, my blood sugar has been out of control. I am having enough trouble trying to manage four kids, the house, and my job without having to worry about getting the complications of long-term high blood sugar too! I sure would like to know why my sugar is running so high."
Reply as if you are talking directly to him.
Use some physiology, in terms appropriate for a layperson, in your answer.