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Transcript of The End
Preet Bagri, Jasleen Parhar
designed by Péter Puklus for Prezi
History & Biography
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)
- Poet, philosopher and literary critic.
- Founder of the Romantic Movement in England along with his friend William Wordsworth.
- Best known for his works 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner' and 'Kubla Khan' (Wikipedia)
Part 1 Overview
- The first part of the poem is an introduction of the setting and how the story will be told.
- We are introduced to the Mariner along with a wedding guest who will be forced to listen to the Mariner's tale.
- The setting within his story describes the visual appearance of the Arctic.
- In the end, the Mariner tells the wedding guest about the Albatross which was one of the first symbols in the text.
Part 2 Overview
- In this part, we see the consequences that the crew faced.
- The sun rose and set in the opposite directions which showed Pathetic Fallacy.
- The crew was very angry with the Mariner for killing the 'good fortune' which bought winds.
- Then their minds change when the mist goes away because they blamed the Albatross for it.
- The crew faces the challenge of surviving without water in the extremely warm weather.
- Slimy things appear
Part 3 Overview
- The third part of the text, we are introduced to more supernatural powers: Death and Life-in-Death.
- There is no movement of winds which stops the ship from sailing.
- An appearance of another ship from the opposite direction, shocks the crew.
- Death and life-in-death battle over the Mariner, in which the victory was made by life-in-death.
- Life-in-death will now decide what will happen to the Mariner.
Part 4 Overview
- The wedding guest fears that there's a spirit talking to him. The mariner reassures him that there’s no need to fear, he’s a living man, not a ghost. - Alone on the ship, the mariner is surrounded by corpses and the slimy sea.
-He tries to pray but he cant cause he hears a “wicked whisper” that made his heart “as dry as dust”. He closed his eyes cause he was unable to bear the sight of the dead men, each who glared at him with the hatred of their final curse.
-For seven days and seven nights, the mariner encountered the sight, and yet he was unable to die. At last the moon rose, creating a shadow of the ship across the water.
- The water snakes glittered as they moved through the moonlight and became beautiful in the mariners eyes. In his heart, he blessed the beautiful creatures; at that moment, he was able to pray and the corpse of the Albatross fell from his neck, sinking “like lead into the sea.”
Nilesh Sharma, Gunsagar Badhan
Part 1 Analysis
Part 2 Analysis
Part 3 Analysis
Part 4 Analysis
Part 5 Overview
Part 5 Analysis
Part 6 Overview
Part 6 Analysis
Part 7 Overview
Part 7 Analysis
We believe that one of the underlying themes of this epic poem is 'Life and Death'. This theme is represented throughout the text through the various supernatural powers and other concepts within the text.
- One of the very first images presented in the first stanza of the poem is representing the dehumanizing character of the Mariner.
- The word 'it' is a direct pronoun that connects the Mariner's character to be unrealistic (Coleridge 1).
- The description made by Coleridge of the Mariner was 'long grey beard and the glittering eye .... Skinny hand' again shows the dehumanizing character but also shows the age and wisdom of the Mariner (1).
- The Albatross was given an identity 'as if it had been a Christian soul' which again is the comparison of the living and the dead. (Coleridge 2)
- The importance of God was one thing that gave meaning to the poem because along with all the supernatural powers, Coleridge used the image of God to show power and peace.
- The shift in the mood started from happiness to dramatic.
- As we are aware from the first part, the Albatross was seen as a good luck charm for the crew. This thought changes when the crew blamed the Albatross for bringing the mist.
- The hanging of the Albatross on the Mariner's neck was to emphasize the heavy burden of guilt that he would be carrying. (Coleridge 5)
- Nature plays a intense role in taking away the human ability to communicate. Coleridge used the image of water to show the Albatross taking revenge upon its death. 'Water, water, everywhere, nor any drop to drink' reveals the crews struggle to survive in such hot weather (Coleridge 4).
- There was another shift to the supernatural powers when slimy creatures started appearing. The rotting of the ocean represents the Mariner's guilt once again.
- Mariner’s curse has been lifted because he blesses those colourful snakes unknowingly. As a result he can pray and sleep with ease, exhausted from all the suffering, he thanks Mary, mother of Christ for this rehabilitation.
- Not only that, he is even blessed by nature in the form of rain. He hears a loud wind at a distance, stars come back, black clouds show up and nature is filled with life. Even the dead crew comes back to life, to help the blessed mariner who is powerless to control the ship alone.
- Suddenly, the ship makes an uneasy motion sending mariner into a stupor. While he was unconscious, he hears two voices talking about the sin he has committed. Those voices conclude that he has done a lot of penance for his mistake and that he will do more penance in future.
- Mariner's curse has been lifted and he has been blessed by nature. Here Coleridge uses pathetic fallacy, nature representing human emotions. The wind start blowing, stars come back, lightening flashes and nature come back to life representing tremendous change in Mariner's attitude. (Coleridge 10)
- This change of attitude, his point of view and thoughts towards other creatures is quite fascinatingly expressed by Coleridge in the poem.
- Second one is when Mariner goes unconscious and hears two voices in his head. These two voices decide the fate of Mariner concluding that he has to do more penance in his life. (Coleridge 13)
-This enforces the idea of "life in death" which is actually our focused theme.
- Coleridge's and Wordworth's 'Lyrical Ballads' were a collection of poems that initially marked the beginning of the Romantic Movement in Literature.
- The Romantic Era began approx. 1798- 1832. (www.poets.org)
- The work of Coleridge reflects many elements of this period such as putting emphasis on human emotions, nature, sins, life and death, supernatural images and god.
- All these elements are presented though his poem
'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner'
"Samuel Taylor Coleridge ." . Wikipedia , 14 10 2013. Web. 27 Oct 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Taylor_Coleridge>.
"A Brief Guide to Romanticism." Poets.Org. Academy of American Poets. Web. 27 Oct 2013. <http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/5670>.
"The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Themes ." Schmoop. Schmoop University. Web. 28 Oct 2013. <http://www.shmoop.com/rime-of-ancient-mariner/themes.html>.
"Parts 1-4." Sparknotes. N.p.. Web. 28 Oct 2013. <http://www.sparknotes.com/poetry/coleridge/section1.rhtml>.
- In the third part of the story we see more ideas of 'dehumanizing' the Mariner.
- 'I bit my arm, i sucked the blood..' Reflects the idea of comparing him to a supernatural image of a vampire. (Coleridge 6)
- When death and life-in-death come into the story we see a shift in the mood in a horrific and fearful way.
- There is a sudden darkness 'At one stride comes the dark' which tells us something bad will happen. (Coleridge 7)
- This shows pathetic fallacy which leads to the death of every crew member except the Mariner.
- In the end of part 3, Coleridge explains how the souls of the sailors escape their bodies and pass the Mariner just like the cross-bow he had shot the Albatross with.
- It is reflected through the lines 'And every soul, it passed me by, like the whizz of my cross-bow'. This puts emphasis on the burden of guild he is still facing. (8)
- All of the explored elements within each part of the poem show a direct relation to the theme of life and death.
- Other themes associated within the text are : nature, transformation, supernatural, isolation and suffering. (www.schmoop.com)
- Formalist criticism focuses mainly on style and structure of the poem and how that adds to readers conscious. Specific tone, imagery, different symbols connect to theme.
- Formalist criticism is also the starting point of where other perspectives of criticisms may come in.
- They all involve a deep understanding and analysis of the text.
- There is a hermit that lives in the forest and he likes to chat with sailors who come from distant places.
- When he saw a ship closing in to the beach, hermit the savior came to the rescue. Hermit and pilot saves the mariner and the ship sinks.
- Mariner is saved and upon his arrival, he feels a certain pain which forces him to tell his story to hermit. And since then, mariner explains that his pain suddenly appears, and he has to get the story off his chest for the pain to stop. -After listening to mariner's story, the wedding guest decides not to go at the wedding.
- Bewildered and stumped guest goes home to rise the next morning as a sadder and wiser man.
- The mariner describes the moon and ocean in a negative and harsh manner at first, but as he sees the snakes’ colors and beauty, he feels unexpected love for them. “They moved in tracks of shining white, and when they reared, the elfish light fell off in hoary flakes.” (Coleridge 10)
- “Blue, glossy green, and velvet black” and “Was a flash of golden fire.” The description of the snakes is in a positive, lush manner. The mariner experiences the beauty of the snakes and describes them as beautiful creatures in his eyes.
- The mariner cries out to God many times, till when he finally awakens to the spiritual value of God’s creations. (He shows appreciation) “O happy living things! No tongue. Their beauty might declare: A spring of love gushed from my heart, and I blessed them unaware: Sure my kind saint took pity on me, and I blessed them unaware.” (Coleridge 10)
- Only when the mariner appreciates the beauty of nature, he is granted the ability to pray and redeem himself. This piece of imagery relates to the supernatural.
The mariner’s rebirth begins by his action of showing appreciation for all of God’s creations. (Life & Death)
- There’s mixed feelings toward the Albatross because if the Albatross wasn't there in the first place then chances are all the crewmen would have been dead in that ice field.
- The Albatross can be looked at as a resemblance to Christ in many ways. When the Mariner finally learns to pray, the curse is broken and the Albatross falls “like lead” into the ocean (simile).
- Basically once he saw the beauty of God’s creations, he could pray which lead the curse to be broken. That shows that the Albatross symbolizes Christ.
- This transition shifted the mood/tone from negative thinking to positive and right to wrong.
-At first, the Mariner was describing the moon and ocean in harsh words, but as he saw the snakes, he saw beauty.
-Imagery that supports this analysis is “The mariner cries out to God many times, till when he finally awakens to the spiritual value of God’s creations. (He shows appreciation) “O happy living things! No tongue. Their beauty might declare: A spring of love gushed from my heart, and I blessed them unaware: Sure my kind saint took pity on me, and I blessed them unaware.” (Coleridge 10) & “Blue, glossy green, and velvet black” and “Was a flash of golden fire.” (Coleridge 10)
The most important imagery in part 7 is when mariner comes back to land and is suddenly filled with pain. "Forthwith this frame.......agony" (Coleridge 19) he uses metaphor like comparing his body to a "frame" emphasizing that he doesn't consider himself a human anymore, just a frame of skeletons because he has suffered through a lot. He even describes his body to be "wrenched" with agony implying his body is worn out through the multiple adversities. He considers his tale to be ghostly and this sets the mood for the reader. He concludes with a "burning heart" to frame the pain mariner has, in the reader's heart.
"That moment........I teach" (Coleridge 19) highlights how the mariner has a n instinct inside him which compels him to tell his ghastly tale to whosoever he wants. This pivotal line insinuates the eccentric lust the man has for telling his story to as many people as he wants. This connects back to our theme that mariner will have his life but his life will not be in his control "life in death". Mariner will be penurious to some godly power who is making him tell his story by intriguing the pain in mariners heart.
Part 6 starts with tho voices talking to each other. First voice being curious to how ship is moving to fast and first voice answering him that wind is helping the ship go faster than a human could ever go. All this while mariner is unconscious and when he wakes up that all his dead crew is still steering the ship. He also realizes that his curse has been lifted for sure now and the weather around him is quite calm and steady. Suddenly to mariners joy, he sees his homeland and is filled with liveliness. All the reincarnated dead crew goes back to their lifeless dead body and angels are standing over their dead bodies. These angels are waving their hand to mariner and blessing them. After that mariner sees hermit and pilot coming in and is overjoyed on that incident .
In part 6 we see the major imagery in two places
First one is when ship is sailing with the help of ocean. Moon who is considered here as a master is giving out orders to ocean to help the mariner ship get to the shore as quickly as possible. We see a master servant relation in here.
Second most signifying imagery is when all the dead crew lay back down dead and angles are standing over their bodies blessing the mariner. This enforces the idea that mariner is being blessed by Gods and angels even after a dreadful deed like killing a innocent albatross. This enlightens us that God is forgivable and we should respect that.