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APWH- Europe in the early Medieval Era
Transcript of APWH- Europe in the early Medieval Era
Constantinople (capital)- strong tax base in peasant agriculture + great trade location
Emperor after Byz. defended attacks from Sassanian Emp.
Justinian's Code- codified/unified roman law
Rebuilt Constantinople (includes Hagia Sophia)
Temporarily extended empire to western Med., but lost some land in the east to Slavs and Persians b/c of over extension.
Byzantine Society, Politics, and Culture
Emperor seen as ordained by God and in control of church and state- appointed bishops, patriarch, etc.
Bureaucracies! Provincial governors were educated men from all social classes who were trained in a secular school system.
Spies created paranoia and distrust b/t governors.
Military! Recruited troops locally and rewarded them w/ land. Eventually generals displace the aristocracy.
Theodora worked to give women more rights... even had empresses.
Economy depended on trade through Constantinople- traded with Mid East, S and E Asia, Russia, Europe. Created luxury goods comparable to China (only one).
Culture based around Hellenism- Greek becomes official language after reign of Justinian- and Eastern/Orthodox Christianity. Iconic art and architecture- mosaics.
Medieval Era Structure
Europe in the early Medieval Era
AP World History
After Schism, looooong period of decline. Around 400 years.
Seljuk Turks seized most of the important trade cities (not Const.)
Eventually new Slavic kingdoms created (Serbia) and Italian merchants now had the power in Constantinople.
By 1453, Constantinople had finally been captured by Ottoman Turks (Muslims).
Fall of Byzantine
Slavic peoples influenced by Byz. Empire in the North, converted to Orthodox Christianity.
Kievan Rus (named for red headed Norse traders) traded HEAVILY with Constantinople, thus Vladimir I easily adopted Orthodox Christianity.
This along with ... wait for it... the Mongols. Will set Russia up on a different developmental path from Western Europe under the papacy.
Catholicism in western Europe
What aspects of the Hagia Sophia are western/Roman and which are distinctly "eastern European?"
That dome tho.
Why would Justinian's Code be a significant achievement? So he codified Roman law. So what? Why does it matter?
What can we foreshadow from the over extension of the Empire?
Long time disputes came to a head over type of bread and priests being allowed to marry.
The pope (western Europe) excommunicates the patriarch (Byz/eastern Europe and Russia).
This is the official split! Now have Roman Catholic Church and Eastern/Greek Orthodox Church.
Feudalism= social, economic, and political structure of the Middle Ages.
For the system to work- have to fulfill obligations.
Lords mostly self-governed. Interaction w/ king only to provide service.
Primogeniture: land went to eldest son.
Serfs (aka peasants) tied to land. Not slaves.
Estates granted to nobles were called fiefs, later known as manors.
Peasants worked on land in exchange for protection.
Three field system- fall, spring, break.
Code of Chivalry- honor system of lords and knights.
Socially, male-dominated, but noblewomen had few rights.
How did trade impact the culture of the Byzantines?
Why would the Ottomans spend over a month seizing this city?
Served as the only consistent political organization after the decline of imperial Rome
Pope = authority of Catholic church
regulated Church doctrine
influenced political leaders (starting w/ Frankish kings)
sent missionaries to win converts
Monasteries served as cultural and educational center during "dark ages"
How did this structure keep political power decentralized?
Seljuk Turks (Muslims) move into the Holy Land --> Pope Urban II calls on ALL Christians (Catholic & E Orthodox) to unite and fight
Crusaders lured by promises of riches and salvation
Crusades failed, but led to diffusion of ideas and technology between East and West