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Atomic Theory Time Travel

Grace Kim 3rd Period

Grace Kim

on 18 September 2012

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Transcript of Atomic Theory Time Travel

Grace Kim Atomic Theory Time Travel Let's begin a journey through the development of the Atomic Theory, traveling back in time, starting with... Democritus of Abdera (430 B.C) suggested the idea of an atom as an indestructible and indivisible particle. John Dalton (1803) developed the atomic theory, which stated that: all matter is composed of indestructible atoms, atoms of the same elements are the same, atoms of different elements are different, atoms combine in simple, whole number ratios to form compounds. From this theory, he discovered the Law of Multiple Proportions (1810), which states that the same 2 elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds. http://www.nndb.com/people/790/000087529/
(1788) Stated the Law of Conservation of Mass, which states that matter cannot be created or destroyed, only arranged. Antoine Lavoisier http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/John_Dalton http://www.kentchemistry.com/links/AtomicStructure/JJThompson.htm http://boingboing.net/2005/09/19/speech-bubble-sticke.html Ah, this is what the atom must look like. Dalton's Model http://www.dipity.com/alexandreah4/Timeline-of-Lavoisier/ Marcel Proust
(1794) introduced the Law of Definite Proportions, which states that a pure substance always contains the same elements combined in the same proportion by mass. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcel_Proust Joseph Gay-Lussac (1808) introduced the Law of Combining Volumes, which stated that at constant temperature and pressure, volumes of reacting gases and gaseous products are in the ratio of small whole numbers. This discovery supported Dalton's atomic theory. http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi704.htm Amadeo Avogadro (1811) came up with Avogado's Hypothesis, which states that equal volumes of gases, under the same condition, have the same amount of particles (6.02 x 10^23= one mole). http://www.revistaequim.com/numeros/19/avogadro.htm Plum Pudding Model http://www.dipity.com/15meambrosius/Megan-and-Kayla-Atomic-theory_1/ J.J. Thomson (1897) discovered the presence of subatomic particles in an atom- negatively charged electrons, and positively charged protons. He observed the curving of cathode rays to find the charge to mass ratio of electrons. To explain his discovery, Thomson introduced the plum pudding model. The model shows electrons dispersed throughout a positively charged sphere. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1906/thomson-bio.html 1. Oil mist is sprayed into a chamber, and the electrons are transferred into droplets
2. Oil drops fall through the chamber
3. In order to suspend the droplet, the charge of plates below are adjusted
4. Then, the charge of the drops are calculated to find the electron's charge Robert Millikan (1911) found the charge of an electron through the oil drop experiment, and found the mass of an electron as well. The oil drop experiment contained the following steps: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1923/millikan-bio.html James Chadwick (1937) discovered the neutrons in an atom. He bombarded boron with alpha particles, and the result was carbon and high energy neutron products. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2009/02/dayintech_0227 Ernest Rutherford (1911) conducted the gold foil experiment and discovered that the atom had a positively charged center with electrons around it. He also found out that there are empty spaces within an atom. After the gold foil was bombarded by alpha particles, most of them went through the foil and some of them were deflected in his experiment. His new model of the atom is called the nuclear model of the atom. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutherford_model http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1908/rutherford-bio.html Henry Moseley (1913) discovered the atomic number of an element using x-rays. This changed the organization of the periodic table, which was previously organized by atomic mass. http://www.rsc.org/Education/Teachers/Resources/periodictable/scientists/moseley.htm Erwin Schrodinger (1926) came up with the Electron Cloud Theory, and suggested that electrons were located here. He also came up with Schrodinger's wave equation to determine the probability of finding the electrons in an atom. His model of the atom is known as the quantum model. Henri Bequerel (1896) discovered that uranium ores can expose film and emit radiation like x-rays. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Becquerel Albert Einstein (1905) came up with E=mc^2 to show how a small amount of mass can result to a huge amount of energy in a nuclear reaction. He also introduced the idea that light has a particle nature the photoelectric effect, which means that when light of a certain frequency shines on a metal, electrons are emitted. http://www.biography.com/people/albert-einstein-9285408 Marie and Pierre Curie (1898) discovered polonium and radium. They observed that these radioactive substances heated the temperature around it, killed bacteria and small organisms, ionized air, and caused phosphorescent substances to glow. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1933/schrodinger-bio.html http://chayex-bhe62510yahoocom.blogspot.com/2011/01/marie-and-pierre-curie.html Werner Heisenberg (1927) came up with the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which stated that it is impossible to know both the position and the velocity of an electron at the same time. http://www.dipity.com/s1300517/Evolution-of-the-Atom/ http://www.aip.org/history/heisenberg/p01.htm Niels Bohr (1922) came up with the planetary model of the atom. These are the characteristics of the planetary atom: electrons travel in definite energy levels without radiating energy, electrons in each orbit have certain amount of energy, energy increases as the distance from the nucleus increases, electrons lose energy only by dropping to a lower energy level. http://education.jlab.org/qa/atom_model.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niels_Bohr Max Plank (1900) proposed the quantum theory, which stated that energy is not emitted continuously but in small packets called quanta, The equation is E=vh, and Plank's constant (h) is 6.626 x 10^-34J x s. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1918/planck-bio.html Louis DeBroglie (1924) created DeBroglie's Hypothesis, which states that if waves can behave like particles, then particles can behave like waves. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1929/broglie-bio.html Glenn Seaborg (1941-1951) found transuranium elements:americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, and seaborgium. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1951/seaborg-bio.html Enrico Fermi (1942) performed the first chain reaction in which the energy was released from the nucleus. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1938/fermi-bio.html Atomic Theory
Democritus suggested a tiny particle that makes up matter called the atom. It was described as indivisible and indestructible. The law of conservation of matter, definite proportions, and multiple proportions all supported the atom's existence. As scientists conducted a variety of experiments, the original theory was proven wrong and new discoveries added on to the theory. The atom was not indivisible after all (gold foil experiment), had a positively charged nucleus - made up of protons and neutrons and an electron cloud surrounding it in which electrons orbited around the nucleus. His new model of the atom was based on Plank's quantum theory, which states that energy is not emitted continuously, but in small packets called quanta.
Additional discoveries are still made today, and they will build upon (or reprove) the previously made observations of the atom and the atomic theory. Societal Issue
Recently, there was a protest in Israel by the Hiroshima attack survivors, who were speaking out against the production of nuclear weapons. As the results of the Hiroshima attack show, nuclear weapons can leave devastating disasters behind, and affects the region even after the weapon has taken its toll. The protest took place because of rumors of Iran leaning toward the development of nuclear weapons. A man from the protest states, "any use of the atom (bomb) should be forbidden, even for intimidation." I definitely agree with this viewpoint of the development of atomic weapons. First of all, if all countries developed masses of nuclear weapons for intimidation or "just in case," they are bound to be used when emergency strikes. There are no positive predictions for an all out nuclear war. Haven't we learned the lesson through the bit we experienced in Hiroshima and Nagasaki? I hope that no country or people ever has to face consequences that the people near those cities had to suffer.
This definitely has an impact on science and future research, because if nuclear weapon development were outlawed, then the science and research would shift its focus onto another means of destruction that is hopefully "safer" than nuclear ones.
On a societal point of view, the abolition of nuclear weapons will definitely help in reconciliation between political relations. For example, North Korea would have no threat over the world, so it will leave room for negotiation. Also, Israel would not have to worry about the Islamic Republic's nuclear program and focus on debating on issues that will point toward peace than destruction. New Discovery of the Atomic Structure
Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics discovered that atom nuclei are more stable if their shells are completely filled just like electrons of the outer orbit. This is helpful in creating stable elements in labs.
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