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Transcript of John Dewey
Received Ph.D. from John Hopkins, where he studied philosophy and psychology
Appointed chairman of the Department of philosophy, psychology, and pedagogy* at the University of Chicago
Started lab school at
University of Chicago
Appointed professor of philosophy at Columbia University
Also worked a Teachers College on the side which provides schooling for the teachers of the poor children of New York City
Born October 20 in
Enrolled in the University of Vermont at the age of 15 where he studied philosophy
Graduated second in his class
Named professor emeritus* at Columbia University
Served as chairman of the commission of the inquiry into the charges made against Leon Trotsky
Publishes Experience and Education
Died June 1st in New York City
Established and was the first president of the American Association of University Professors
Publishes Democracy and Education
Dewey and Democracy
"A government resting upon popular suffrage cannot be successful unless those who elect and who obey their governors are educated. Since a democratic society repudiates the principle of external authority, it must find a substitute in voluntary disposition and interest; these can be created only by education."
Dewey’s Type of Society
Theory of Experience
Dewey & Diversity
Child Centered Teaching
School & Home Parallel
"A society which is mobile, which is full of channels for the distribution of a change occurring anywhere, must see to it that its members are educated to personal initiative and adaptability. "
"Diversity of stimulation means novelty, and novelty means challenge to thought"
"It is the business of the school to deepen and extend his sense of the values bound up in his home life"
"Every experience is a moving force. Its value can be judged only on the ground of what it moves toward and into. "
Dewey believes there are two parts of experiences...
is the notion that humans are sensitive to and affected by experiences. Continuity refers to the idea each experience is stored and carried on into the future, whether one likes it or not.
explains how past experiences interacts with the present situation to create one's present experience.
"We must take our stand with the child and our departure from him. It is he and not the subject-matter which determines both quality and quantity of learning."
Dewy defined Democratic Society as:
1) The extent to which the interests of a group are shared by all its members
2) The extent to which groups may freely interact with each other
The kind of education that democracies offer gives the individual a personal interest in the societal processes which organize her/his life, as well as
control over her/his own destiny.
To do so, democratic societies need to equip the individual with "the habits of the mind which secure social changes without introducing disorder."
A Democratic classroom creates
Students will be involved in real life tasks and challenges.
Students will have the opportunity to make real decisions in a community with concrete outcomes.
1. How does Dewey define a Democratic Classroom? How would a Democratic Classroom work?
2. What kinds of citizens does democratic classrooms create?
3. Have you experienced a Democratic Classroom?
4. How is a Democratic classroom different from a teacher-centered classroom?
Dewey believes education is the key to creating the best possible society.
The students participate in
learning by doing
encouraging problems and solving them
, which not only facilitates the acquisition and retention of knowledge but also fosters the
right character traits
: unselfishness, helpfulness, critical intelligence, and individual initiative.
Learning is a development of habits which enable the growing person to deal effectively and most intelligently with their environment.
School is a place to not only gain content knowledge but a place to learn how to live in our society.
Dewey aimed to integrate the school with society, and the processes of learning with the
actual problems of life
, through the application of the principles and practices of democracy.
Relating society to the classroom teaches students how to think rationally in order to become intelligent and contributing members of society.
Relating the curriculum to society enables students to understand and participate effectively in the events of the community in a collaborative effort to achieve a common goal.
1. What are some examples of projects for classrooms for which Dewey would advocate?
2. What types of projects could impact society?
3.What lessons could teachers provide their students with, in order to benefit them and their future society?
Each subject is not only a body of facts but a form of living
Curriculum should be based on students' interests and should involve them in active experiences. Thus, increasing participation and a purpose to the concept.
The students' interests will be the motive for all work, allowing the students to find deeper and relative mean in the curriculum.
The teacher presents the content in a way that students are able to connect the information to prior experiences, and will serve as a guide.
Students play a role in creating their own knowledge
. They become a partner in their learning process.
“Teacher loses the position of external boss or dictator but takes on that of leader of group activities.”
- John Dewey
Hands on learning impresses the mind to deepen the students understanding of the content.
Reconstruction of experiences
- Students need to reanalyze their past experiences to better society.
For Dewey, reconstruction is the name given to the work we do when we apply creative intelligence to rethinking and readjusting our principles and practices.
1. Explain the purpose of having experiences in the classroom?
2. What personal experiences have you had with teachers providing you with opportunities to use your experiences in the classroom?
3. What does Dewey mean by Reconstruction of Experiences?
Diversity is the difference of stimulation in instruction in response to student's
Dewey accepted the importance of functional differentiation, understanding students different experiences, learning processes and interest, of different groups serving different needs.
Dewey wanted to coordinate individuals diverse influences of their social environment.
We should celebrate differences as long as there is a line of open communication.
Each student should be recognized for his or her own abilities, interest, ideas, needs and cultural identity.
Diversity provides alternatives thereby allowing freedom.
"The object of democratic education is not merely to make an individual an intelligent participant in the life of his immediate group, but to bring the various groups into such constant interaction that no individual, no economic groups, could presume to live independently of others."
1. What is Dewey's Definition of Diversity?
2. How is diversity operational in classrooms?
3. How does diversity help the community?
Child-centered Teaching is based on the inquisitiveness of the child, and his/her interests. The learning should support the self-educational process of the child, particularly by supporting his/her own senses of self- organization and responsibility.
Teachers need to be aware of the capacities, needs, and past experiences of the students and allow them to make suggestions to develop a plan and project.
What the teacher suggests to the class is not set in stone, but rather
"a starting point to be developed into a plan through
contributions from the experience of all engaged in the learning process
- John Dewey
students to the discovery of relevant information by using their great insight to help organize the conditions of the experience. For example, a classroom discussion.
Therefore, teaching and learning becomes more personal and individualized.
A philosophy of experiences is catering to the needs of individuals.
Every student has a role where they perform tasks to learn how to become an active citizen in society.
1. How will you implicate child-centered teaching in your classroom?
2. What is the role of the teacher in a child centered classroom? Explain.
3. Have you experienced a child-centered classroom? Explain.
Classroom work in Dewey's school was a carefully designed
extension of the child's familiar life in the home.
Projects resembled those of a traditional household- for example, craft and cooking were used as ways to teach practical lessons of reading and mathematics.
As the students are working on practical projects they are directed into larger lessons, ranging from mathematical to moral lessons when working in the kitchen or sewing room.
Including a "home like" feel in the classroom, which helps students feel comfortable.
Cooperation between school and home will fill all needs of the child's development such as music, dancing, play and other extra-curricular activities.
Having the classroom be an extension from home helps students gain experience from other students and personal experiences gives new ideas to the classroom.
1. What does it mean to have the classroom parallel to the home?
2. In what way, will you try to make your classroom have a sense of home?
3. Have you ever experienced a "home" environment in the classroom?
Dewey was the third of four sons his parents had
Dewey's father was a Union Army solider in the Civil war
Dewey's childhood was comfortable and stable
Liked to read philosophical treatises
1886-Married Harriet Alice Chipman
Together they has 6 children and adopted one
Dewey published over 1,000 works, including essays, articles and books
Dewey lived through
The Civil War 1861 - 1865
World War I 1914 - 1918
World War II 1939 -1945
1. What was the main focus in older schools?
2. How did the children learn in the beginning of the video? Explain how this is helpful or harmful for the students?
3. What was the new method of teaching children? Explain how this is better or worst for students?
4. What did the projects in experiential school involve? Explain the purpose of the project.
5. How does the video relate to Dewey's theories on education?
*The art of teaching
Experimental primary school, The University Elementary School
Where Dewey tested his theories
*Retired but still holds the honor
Alexandria Eldridge, Sariah Cafiero, Thomas Stanley, Nicolettle Barone
John Dewey and Harriet Alice Chipman
"Life is a self-renewing process through action upon the environment"
Dewey's house in Key West, FL
What do you think
What kind of
learner are you?
Dewey: Yes or No
“Education is a social process; education is growth;
education is not a preparation for life but is life itself.”
- John Dewey
John Dewey in 1880s
Part of the American Committee for the Defense of Leon Trotsky
Dewey at 78 years old agreed to head the commission of inquiry.