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African Sleeping Sickness

Biodiversity Lab Presentation

Michelle Hanley

on 12 November 2012

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Transcript of African Sleeping Sickness

African Sleeping Sickness
(ASS) By Ashley Anderson, Cole Ragsdale, Grayson Solt, and Hayden Rankin History: Definition: Symptoms: Diagnosis: Treatments: First located: West Coast of Africa

There are two forms of the sickness - the East and the West.

Everyone who contracted the disease ended up dying. (1803)

Didn't know what caused the disease- thought it was food eaten by the people, certain fish, or the presence of worms. East African Sleeping Sickness West African Sleeping Sickness How was it introduced to the country? Disease documented- 1901

First broke out in Busoga-
on the East.

Soudanese family brought it from the edge of the Congo where it was already an epidemic. Uganda Uganda Prevention: Complications: Depends on the stage of the disease.

1st stage: drugs have lower toxicity and are easier to administer

2nd stage: depends on a drug that can cross the blood brain barrier to reach the parasite. Treatments Continued: First stage treatments:
-Pentamidine: 1941
-Suramin (Antrypol): 1921.

Second stage treatments:
-Melarsoprol: 1949.
-Elfonithine: 1990.
-Nifurthimox and Elfornithine combination: 2009. Fall asleep while driving, and performing other daily activities.

Progressive damage of the nervous system and possible comas.

Without treatments, the infections of T. rhodesiense (East African sleeping sickness) or T. gambiense (West African sleeping sickness) will progress and ultimately lead to cardiac failure or the breakdown of the CNS. Disturbance of the functions in the brain. Symptoms may be so slight that the patient may not suspect anything wrong.
Change in character- person becomes less inclined to exert themselves.
West African Trypanosomiasis- symptoms may take many months or years to appear.
East African Trypanosomiasis- symptoms occur only 1-4 weeks after initial exposure.
General Symptoms:
Uncontrollable drowsiness, anxiety, fever, headache, insomnia, sweating profusely, swollen lymph nodes, swollen nodule at site if bite, weakness Symptoms Continued: Initial symptoms:
Intermittent fevers, headaches, muscle and joint pain, malaise-feeling of general discomfort, itching of the skin,weight loss
Prolonged symptoms:
Progressive confusion, slurred speech, personality changes, seizures, difficulty walking, and eventually death Made through laboratory methods because clinical features are not specific.

Diagnosis rests on finding the parasite in the body fluid or tissue through microscopy.

The amount of parasites are more in the T.b. rhodesiense than in the T.b. gambiense (more in east than in west). Parasites are found in the lymph node fluid OR biopsy of a chancre.

Method: microscopic examination of lymph node aspirate. (found in a posterior cervical node)

If diagnosed: must have cerebrospinal fluid examined
Why? To see if Central Nervous System is involved The African Sleeping Sickness is essentially a disturbance of the functions of the brain.

So what causes it?
Human African trypanosomiasis is a vector born parasitic disease. (protozoa kingdom)
The trypanosome (shown below)- single cell, worm like creature with a macronucleus, micronucleus, and a long terminal flagellum. Definition Continued: The parasite divides rapidly
It's unknown how it actually kills it's host- may slowly poison the system, which slowly shows cronic changes in the brain and spinal cord.
These two parasites- T.b. rhodesiense and T.b. gambiense- are carried by the Tsetse fly.
These parasites are passed through bites on humans and even cattle. Rural populations ( agriculture, fishing, animal husbandry, and hunting) are most exposed to the fly.
Threatens about 60 million people in more than 36 countries worldwide.
War and poverty add to the climbing infected populations. To prevent the sickness, prevent insect bites!
Wear protective clothing
Wear neutral colored clothing
Inspect vehicles for the flies before entering
Avoid bushes
Use insect repellant
Treat livestock used for food consumption with insect preventative Risk of infection increases as the number of bites increases
Children can become infected in the womb when their mothers have it Geographic Distribution: Limited to sub-Saharan Africa- areas where the tsetse fly is present.

Two forms of the sickness develop:
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (West African trypanosomiasis)
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (East African trypanosomiasis)
There is a form that is found in the Americas called Chagas disease. Fun Facts: -Personality changes. -Sleep more and more
-2-4 years to develop
-Microorganism hides from immune system
-Changes the way it looks every two weeks
-Lower the number of mosquitoes Control programs for the disease reduced the prevalence of the disease in the 1960s.
Since the 80s- resurgence of the disease in many countries. WHO (World Health Organization) initiated a strong awareness and advocacy campaign in the late 90s.
The goal now is to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2015. Awareness and Elimination
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