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African and Indian Independence

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Anthony Mers

on 30 April 2015

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Transcript of African and Indian Independence

Big Picture Question #1:
"In what ways did the colonial experience and the struggle for independence shape the agenda of developing countries in the second half of the 20th Century?"

Colonization and decolonization created a new national identity, which took shape in opposition to the imperial power.
Central to this agenda was the establishment of stable governing institutions and a new civil society.
Economic development provided the second critical element in the agenda as newly free states sought to increase production and to distribute the fruits of that growth to raise the living standards, a central promise of independence movements.
INDIA
AFRICA
Why was Africa's experience with political
democracy so different from that of India?
Struggle for independence in India
had been a far more prolonged affair
, allowing time for Indian political leadership to work itself out.
Britain began to
hand over power in India in a gradual way
well before complete independence was granted.
Because of these factors,
a far larger number of Indians had useful administrative or technical skills
than was the case in Africa.
Unlike most African countries, the
nationalist movement in India was embodied in a single national party, the INC
, whose leadership was committed to a democratic process.
The
partition of India at independence eliminated
a major source of internal discord.
Indian statehood could be built on
cultural and political traditions that were far more deeply rooted
than in most African states.
What was distinctive about the end of Europe's African and Asian empires compared to other cases of imperial disintegration?
Never before had the end of empire been so associated with
the mobilization of the masses around a nationalist identity,
nor had earlier cases of imperial dissolution generated such
a plethora of nation-states, each claiming an equal place in a world of nation-states.
Indian Independence:
Who was Gandhi?
HW- Document Analysis:
Read intro on page 1110
Read document 23.2 and answer accompanying questions
Then read the intro to the visual sources on page 1122 & answer the questions that accompany visual source 23.1
Finally, explain how the 2 sources illustrate the similarities and differences in Indian & African Independence movements

Why did Nkrumah think that union was so essential? What benefits would it bring to Africa in its efforts at development?
Union would increase Africa's clout on the int'l stage & in the global market. It would also safeguard independence, allow for better econ. planning & weaken the influence of colonial powers
It would pave the way for the formation of a Common Market of a United Africa
Military & diplomatic expenses would be less costly but more effective
What kind of union did Nkrumah seek?
Sought a union in which overall economic planning is conducted on a continental basis
Would work toward building a Common African Market equal to the Euro-Market
Aimed to establish a unified military & defense strategy & have a unified foreign policy & diplomacy
What challenges does Nkrumah identify to his soaring vision of a United States of Africa?
Which was most daunting?
Africa has a variety of races, cultures, religions, and languages on the continent and its history or territorial boundaries.
Some new states were jealous of their sovereignty and tend to exaggerate their separatism
Willingness to participate
Why do you think the 13 separate colonies of British N. America were able to form a United States in the late 18th Century while their 20th century counterparts in Africa have not?
13 colonies had smaller, more homogenous populations in a smaller territory
Unlike Africa, the colonies had fought together, and at the same time, against the same colonial overlord
Colonies possessed a similar preexisting political culture of self-gov't that made the transition to self-rule easier than Africa
American colonies were not as fully integrated into the global economy
Non-Cooperation Tree & Gandhi
How does the poster portray British colonial
authorities in relationship to Gandhi's movement?
Prison & rope labeled "policy of repression" attached to the tree being pulled by a British soldier
Soldier trying to break one of the factions(branches) loose to foster divisions
Council of Chambers across the Gulf of Difference recognizes British desire to offer "some" concessions
What kinds of divisions within India's nationalist movement does the poster suggest?
Muslims & Hindus
Swarajiya (Independence party) & No-Change Party
What does the poster disclose about the role of religion, and particularly Hinduism, in the Indian nationalist movement? How might Muslims have responded to the Hindu religious imagery of the poster?
Hinduism played a prominent role as is revealed in the figures of Bharat Mata, Krishna and the Goddess of Unity
Muslims may have felt excluded or marginalized by the Hindu imagery
Muslims also may have identified with the fighting of bloody Muslims & Hindus in the lower left corner of the image
How does the poster portray Gandhi and his wife, Kasturbai, the woman in white sitting in front of the small red house? According to the poster, what kind of India was Gandhi seeking after independence?
Gandhi and his wife are portrayed in a peaceful scene. Gandhi is seated on a mat with books, while Kasturbai is seated at the threshold of what might be their house and is undertaking household tasks. Their peaceful existence underneath the tree of non-cooperation may be intended to foreshadow the future. This interpretation is strengthened by the wall that separates them from British repression with Muslim/Hindu sectarian violence
Gandhi sought an independent, united India that overcomes its political and religious differences. He envisioned an India where all people, including the leaders of the independence movement, could return to peaceful family life.
Gandhi, Mohandas K.
Usually referred to by his soubriquet “Mahatma” (Great Soul), Gandhi (1869–1948) was a political leader and the undoubted spiritual leader of the Indian drive for independence from Great Britain.
Gandhi was born in the province of Gujarat in western India to a pious Hindu family of the Vaisya, or business, caste.
Married at 13, had only a mediocre record as a student, & eagerly embraced an opportunity to study law in England at 18.
Returned as a shy and not very successful lawyer.

1893 he accepted a job with an Indian firm in South Africa, where a substantial number of Indians had migrated as indentured laborers during the 19th century.

While in South Africa, Gandhi personally experienced overt racism for the first time and as a result soon became involved in organizing Indians, mostly Muslims, to protest that country’s policies of racial segregation.
Developed a concept of India that included Hindus & Muslims alike

Pioneered strategies of resistance that he would later apply in India itself.

His emerging political philosophy, known as satyagraha (truth force), was a confrontational, though non-violent, approach to political action.
"Non-violence means conscious suffering. It does not mean meek submission to the will of the evil-doer, but it means the pitting of one’s whole soul against the will of the tyrant… [I]t is possible for a single individual to defy the whole might of an unjust empire to save his honour, his religion, his soul."
Indian National Congress (INC): 1885 Association of English-educated Indians—lawyers, journalists, teachers, businessmen—drawn overwhelmingly from regionally prominent high-caste Hindu families.

Its founding represented the beginning of a new kind of political protest, quite different from the rebellions, banditry, and refusal to pay taxes that had periodically erupted in the rural areas of colonial India.

The INC was largely an urban phenomenon and quite moderate in its demands.
Initially, INC well-educated members did not seek to overthrow British rule; rather they hoped to gain greater inclusion within the political, military, and business life of British India.

From such positions of influence, they argued, they could better protect the interests of India than could their foreign-born rulers.

The British mocked their claim to speak for ordinary Indians, referring to them as “babus,” a derogatory term that implied a semi literate “native” with only a thin veneer of modern education.
1920s & 30s: periodic mass campaigns that drew support from an extraordinarily wide spectrum of Indians—peasants and the urban poor, intellectuals and artisans, capitalists and socialists, Hindus and Muslims.

British responded with periodic repression as well as concessions that allowed a greater Indian role in political life.

Gandhi’s conduct & actions—his simple and unpretentious lifestyle, his support of Muslims, his frequent reference to Hindu religious themes—appealed widely in India and transformed the INC into a mass organization.
He did not call for social revolution but sought the moral transformation of individuals.

He worked to raise the status of India’s untouchables (the lowest and most ritually polluting groups within the caste hierarchy), although he launched no attack on caste in general and accepted support from businessmen and their socialist critics alike.

His critique of India’s situation went far beyond colonial rule.
“India is being ground down,” he argued, “not under the English heel, but under that of modern civilization”—its competitiveness, its materialism, its warlike tendencies, its abandonment of religion.

Almost alone among nationalist leaders in India or elsewhere, Gandhi opposed a modern industrial future for his country, seeking instead a society of harmonious self-sufficient villages drawing on ancient Indian principles of duty and morality.
Colonial India became independent in 1947 as 2 countries—a Muslim Pakistan & a mostly Hindu India governed by a secular state.

Dividing colonial India in this fashion was horrendously painful.

1 million + people died in the communal violence that accompanied partition, & 12 million refugees moved from one country to the other to join their religious compatriots.

Gandhi himself, desperately trying to stem the mounting tide of violence in India’s villages, refused to attend the independence celebrations.
He was assassinated in 1948 by a Hindu extremist.

The great triumph of independence, secured from the powerful British Empire, was shadowed by an equally great tragedy in the violence of partition.
African Independence & Democracy
What accounts for the ups and downs of political democracy in post-colonial Africa?
• Some have argued that Africans lacked some crucial ingredient for democratic politics—an educated electorate, a middle class, or perhaps a thoroughly capitalist economy.

• Others have suggested that Africa’s traditional culture, based on communal rather than individualistic values and concerned to achieve consensus rather than majority rule, was not compatible with the competitiveness of party politics.
• Some have argued that Western-style democracy was simply inadequate for the tasks of development confronting the new states.

• Creating national unity was more difficult when competing political parties identified primarily with particular ethnic or “tribal” groups.
• The immense problems that inevitably accompany the early stages of economic development may be compounded by the heavy demands of a political system based on universal suffrage.

• Widespread economic disappointment weakened the popular support of many post-independence governments in Africa and discredited their initial democracies.
South African Independence, Mandela & Apartheid
Who was
Mandela?
Mandela, Nelson: South African nationalist (b. 1918) and
leader of the African National Congress
who was
imprisoned for 27 years
on charges of treason, sabotage, and conspiracy to
overthrow the apartheid government
of South Africa; he was
elected president of South Africa in 1994, 4 years after he was finally released
from prison. (pron. man-DEL-ah)
S. Africa much different from India, internal opponent.
The setting for South Africa’s freedom struggle was very different from the situation in India.
That
independence
, however, had been
granted to a government wholly controlled by a white settler minority
, which represented less than 20 percent of the total population.
The country’s
black African majority had no political rights
whatsoever within the central state.
Black South Africans’ struggle therefore was against this internal opponent
rather than against a distant colonial authority, as in India.
The term
“Afrikaner”
reflected their image of themselves as “white Africans,” permanent residents of the continent rather than colonial intruders.
They had unsuccessfully sought independence from a British-ruled South Africa in a bitter struggle (the
Boer War, 1899–1902
), and a sense of difference and antagonism lingered.
S. Africa much different from India,
prominence of race
Unlike India, S. Africa had a mature & industrialized economy (gold, diamond mining).
Another unique feature of the South African situation was the overwhelming prominence of race, expressed most clearly in the policy of apartheid, which attempted to separate blacks from whites in every conceivable way while retaining Africans’ labor power in the white-controlled economy.
An enormous apparatus of repression enforced that system.
Rigid “pass laws” monitored and tried to control the movement of Africans into the cities, where they were subjected to extreme forms of social segregation.
In the rural areas, a series of impoverished and overcrowded “native reserves,” or Bantustans, served as ethnic homelands that kept Africans divided along tribal lines. Even though racism was present in colonial India, nothing of this magnitude developed there.
Unlike India, S. Africa had a mature & industrialized economy (gold, diamond mining).
Another unique feature of the South African situation was the o
verwhelming prominence of race,
expressed most clearly in the policy of a
partheid,
which attempted to separate blacks from whites in every conceivable way while retaining Africans’ labor power in the white-controlled economy.

An en
ormous apparatus of repression e
nforced that system.

Rigid “pass laws” monitored and tried to con
trol the movement of Africans int
o the cities, where they were subjected to ext
reme forms of social segregation.
In the rural areas, a series of impoverished and overcrowded “native reserves,” or Bantustans, served as ethnic homelands that kept Africans divided along tribal lines. Even though racism was present in colonial India, nothing of this magnitude developed there.
Soweto: (pron. sow-WAY-toe)
Impoverished black neighborhood outside Johannesburg, South Africa, and the site of a violent uprising in 1976 in which hundreds were killed; that rebellion began a series of violent protests and strikes that helped end apartheid.
* Johannesburg
Young people were at the center of an explosion of protest in 1976 in a sprawling, segregated, impoverished black neighborhood called
Soweto
, outside Johannesburg, in which hundreds were killed.

The initial trigger for the uprising was the government’s decision to
enforce education for Africans in the hated language of the white Afrikaners rather than English.

However, the momentum of the Soweto rebellion persisted, and by the mid-1980s, spreading urban violence and the
radicalization of urban young people had forced the government to declare a state of emergency.

Furthermore,
South Africa’s black labor movement
, legalized only in 1979, became increasingly active and political.

In June 1986, to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the Soweto uprising, the Congress of
South African Trade Unions orchestrated a general strike involving some 2 million workers.
Cry Freedom:
Cry Freedom is a 1987 feature film directed by Richard Attenborough, set in the late 1970s, during the apartheid era of South Africa.
South African journalist Donald Woods is forced to flee the country after attempting to investigate the death in custody of his friend the black activist Steve Biko.

The film was shot in neighbouring Zimbabwe, and, although not banned in South Africa, cinemas showing the films were faced with bomb threats.

According to the Internet Movie Database, the film was seized by authorities on July 29, 1988. In some cases, there were reports that prints of the films were wrenched off the cinema projectors and the film remained unseen in South Africa until 1991.
The combination of these
internal and external pressures
persuaded many white South Africans by the late 1980s that discussion with African nationalist leaders was the only alternative to a massive, bloody, and futile struggle to preserve white privileges.

The outcome was the abandonment of key apartheid policies, the
release of Nelson Mandela from prison
, the
legalization of the ANC
, and a
prolonged process of negotiations
that in 1994 resulted in
national elections
, which brought the ANC to power.

To the surprise of almost everyone, the long nightmare of South African
apartheid came to an end without a racial bloodbath.

Archbishop Desmond Tutu
: South African activist and Anglican bishop who rose to
worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid
. He was the first black South African Archbishop of Cape Town, South Africa and primate of the Church of the Province of Southern Africa (now the Anglican Church of Southern Africa).
End Apartheid!!!
How can I turn away Brother/Sister go dancing Through my head Human as to human The future is no place To place your better days
Cry freedom cry From a crowd 10,000 wide Hope laid upon hope That this crowd will not subside Let this flag burn to dust And a new a fair design be raised While we wait head in hands Hands in prayer And fall into a dreamless sleep again And we wave our hands
Hands and feet are all alike But gold between divide us Hands and feet are all alike But fear between divide us All slip away
There was a window and by it stood A mirror in which He could see himself He thought of something Something he had never had but hoped would come along Cry freedom, cry From deep inside Where we are all confined While we wave hands in fire Wave our hands
Hands and feet are all alike But gold between divide us Hands and feet are all alike But fear between divide us, Slip away In this room stood a little child And in this room this little child She would remain Until someone might decide To dance this little child Across this hall Into a cold, dark, space Where she might never trace her way across this crooked mile Across this crooked page Cry freedom, cry From deep inside where We are all confined Till we wave our hands
How can I turn away
Brother/Sister go dancing
Through my head
Human as to human The future is no place To place your better days
Hands and feet are all alike
But gold between divide us
Hands and feet are all alike
But fear between divide us
Hands and feet are all alike
Hear what I say
Hear what I say
Oh, so be it
How can I turn away
Brother/Sister go dancing
Through my head
Human as to human
The future is no place
To place your better days
"Cry Freedom"

How can I turn away
Brother/Sister go dancing
Through my head
Human as to human
The future is no place
To place your better days

Cry freedom cry
From a crowd 10,000 wide
Hope laid upon hope
That this crowd will not subside
Let this flag burn to dust
And a new a fair design be raised
While we wait head in hands
Hands in prayer
And fall into a dreamless sleep again
And we wave our hands

Hands and feet are all alike
But gold between divide us
Hands and feet are all alike
But fear between divide us
All slip away

There was a window and by it stood
A mirror in which
He could see himself
He thought of something
Something he had never had but hoped would come along
Cry freedom, cry
From deep inside
Where we are all confined
While we wave hands in fire
Wave our hands

Hands and feet are all alike
But gold between divide us
Hands and feet are all alike
But fear between divide us,
Slip away
In this room stood a little child
And in this room this little child
She would remain
Until someone might decide
To dance this little child
Across this hall
Into a cold, dark, space
Where she might never trace her way across this crooked mile
Across this crooked page
Cry freedom, cry
From deep inside where
We are all confined
Till we wave our hands
20th Century changes &
continuities in China
20th Century changes & continuities in India
How would you compare the historical experience of India and China in the 20th Century
How would you compare the historical experience of India and China in the 20th Century?
Both experienced considerable influence from...
Both secured _____________ in the 1940's but China through _______ and India through _______________.
China established a _______________ while India established _________________.
Economically...
Full transcript