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Transcript of The Multiverse
Welcome to the Multiverse
The Quilted Universe
Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
This theory states that shortly after the Big Bang, space-time expanded at different rates in different areas. This would lead to a decaying false vacuum. A false vacuum is a region of space that seems stable, but is truly unstable. These false vacuums would use the quantum-mechanics system of borrowing energy, "tunneling", to gain the energy it needs to inflate. They could inflate to any size: the size of our universe, smaller or even larger. They could inflate infinitely, or for a limited time. They could theoretically collapse at any given moment. It is thought that these vacuums could create what we call "Bubble Universes", and many of them would create an over all Multiverse. This would carry on infinitely, creating a larger and larger Multiverse.
There is a hypothesis that uses the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble (ECSK) theory of gravity to explain the creation of universes through black holes. It states that the intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of particles would create the torsion (twist) of space-time. The torsion of space-time would prevent the matter inside a black hole from compressing into infinite density. Although finite, it would still be a very high density level. The gravitational energy inside the black hole would then convert into mass, immensely increasing the mass of the black hole’s interior. The more particles with spin in the black hole, the stronger the torsion becomes, and it repulses the expected collapse inside a black hole, soon causing a “big bounce”. This big bounce is much like the big bang idea. Think of a ball being compressed and then snapping outward and expanding. Therefore, a baby universe is created inside a black hole. It is thought that this may occur in every black hole.
The observable universe, or as much of the universe as we can see from Earth, is about 46 billion light -years in any direction. This is because light from further away has not reached us yet, and thus we can not view it. (That is also why viewing distant celestial objects is like looking into the past). Now assuming that the universe is infinite, and that all matter is evenly dispersed through it from the Big Bang, we can predict that there is identical matter elsewhere in the universe. In this theory, the observable universe repeats itself over the grid of space-time.
Essentially, this theory states that there is a universe for every single possibility. Quantum physics has a lot to with probability. Every event is a branching point to another universe. That creates an infinite amount of universes! These infinite universes would make up the multiverse. This theory developed out of a famous example known as "Schrödinger's Cat".
This example places a cat in a box with a container that has a 50/50 chance of releasing poisonous gas. We can not know whether the cat is dead or alive until we open the box. So what is it considered before we open it? With MWI, it is both: Alive in one universe, and dead in another.
Before you begin to judge the idea of a multiverse, allow me to change your perspective. Rather than asking, "Why would there be a multiverse, and why why is our universe this certain way, and not different?", ask yourself "Why do we find ourselves in this particular universe?" Well, we find ourselves in this particular universe, because this is where our form of life would be best supported. With nearly infinite possibilities, our place in our solar system of our galaxy of our universe, is just the right place for man to harbor. That is why we find ourselves on Earth, and not elsewhere. Sure, there could be other intelligent life elsewhere in another system or universe, but this spot is just right for us.
There could be an immensely high, yet finite amount of bubble universes in what is like a cosmic bubble bath caused by eternal inflation!
What is tunneling?
Due to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, which limits the amount of knowledge of a particle's position, there is a very slim but probable chance that particles could pass through a physical barrier. The electron wave of a given object could eventually take the small chance of passing through a barrier without creating a hole or destroying the object. As energy is made of particles, the energy transferring from a region of space to it's inflating vacuum, or bubble universe, is possible. However, the chance of tunneling is so small that the process could take billions of years.
Black Hole Cosmology
By Alex Gray
An Introduction to Multiverses in correlation with String Theory
by Michio Kaku.
The craziest bit is that this implies that there are other copies of you in other observable universes! They are either identical to you, or very similar!
M-theory is an extension of string theory than unifies the five different standpoints into one. By using 11 dimensions rather than 4 or 10, string theory finally makes sense. In string theory, all sub-atomic particles are composed of tiny little strings that are vibrating. They are moving in all 11 dimensions, according to M-theory. But what is the eleventh dimension? It is suggested that the eleventh dimension allows these strings to stretch to immense sizes as a membrane that humans can not view. They can be so immensely large, that they are quite literally separate universes. These membranes would not be flat and still, like one would imagine, but would move like waves, rippling. This leads to how matter is created inside a universe. When two different branes ripple into one another at a single point, it would create a "big bang". Through the laws of gravity, electro-magnetism, and dark energy, this bang would make the brane universe expand continuously until it "dies".
Many of the universes created through this theory would be "dead". They would not contain enough dark energy or dark matter to remain stabilized. However, several of the universes would be just like ours. They could quite possibly even contain intelligent life forms, similar to us.
String Field Theory Equation:
We can experience 3 dimensions, plus the time dimension. However, this does not mean that another 7 couldn't exist!
Other universes may have different amounts of dark energy. Universes with much more could create so much repelling gravity that any matter that is trying to clump into galaxies would be blown apart. In a universe with much less, the universe would collapse back on itself before galaxies had time to form.
Dark Energy & Gravity
In Einstein's equations, there was a missing invisible energy known as the "cosmological constant" that would allow gravity to become repelling, rather than attracting. He often left this bit blank, and worked around it. However, now that physicists have discovered the cosmic expansion of the universe to be speeding up rather than slowing down, we have calculated the amount of this "dark energy". The amount of dark energy per cubic meter has been measured to be 1.38^-123 joules per cubic meter.
No galaxies means no stars. If there are no stars, then there are no planets, and without planets, we can not inhabit anything.
1)"Is Our Universe the Only Universe?" Lecture. TED Talks. Long Beach, California. Mar. 2012. TED Talks. TED, Mar. 2012. Web.
2) Kaku, Michio. "The Universe In a Nutshell." Lecture. Youtube. BigThink, 15 Aug. 2012. Web.
3) Vaidman, Lev. "Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics." (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). N.p., 24 Mar. 2002. Web. 06 Mar. 2013.