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Beyond Listen and Repeat: Pronunciation Teaching
Transcript of Beyond Listen and Repeat: Pronunciation Teaching
Pronunciation Teaching Materials
and Theories of Second Language Acquisition "Pronunciation improves through gradual monitoring of the acquired system based
on conscious knowledge of the facts
learned about the language" Interlanguage Phonology There is a belief that learners' first language affects the acquisition of the second language sound system more than other systems
(such as grammar) This is reflected in the large number of pronunciation teaching materials which include sections on contrastive analysis, Which usually alert teachers to 'special problems' likely to be encountered by particular L1 speakers. "there is a universal tendency in language acquisition to reduce complex forms: transfer is only a part, oftenly a small part, of the ifluence on interlanguage phonology" Tarone (1978) with other factors such as: * overgeneralization
* avoidance being much more significant. Contrastive analysis
had given more sophisticated theories:
* learners approach a new system by mapping it onto their L1 sound system, using existing categories. Maken and Ferguson (1987) Phonological processes such as substitution, assimilation, deletion and reduplication, evident in L1 acquisition are also present in L2 acquisition. The use of simplified systems
of phonetic transcription based on the L1, should be avoided. L1 transfer should not be seen
as something negative, but rather
as a natural stage and valuable
strategy in the process of the acquisition of the L2 sound
system. Conclusion Phonology and the Monitor Dickerson (1987) In a study involving Chinese, Korean and Japanese learners found that formal rules do result in improvement when used for monitoring speech, gaining fluency and accuracy. Another direction is to present rules
more inductively through 'discovery activities' in which students listen and attempt to articulate the rules governing what they have heard with the help of cues or classmates. This technique has many advantages: * it make rules more memorable to learners
* it increase awareness of pronunciation
* it provides opportunities for communicative practice. This statement has been echoed in relation to pronunciation teaching (Pennington and
Richards, 1986) "In order to become a more competent speaker and listener"
(Pennington 1996) Other writers had
included interactive activities such as information gap, where a proper pronunciation and perception can lead to the correct outcome in the task. There has also being an attempt to make repetitive practice for rhythm and sound more natural by the use of poetry and songs. Creating a stronger link between pronunciation and communication can help increase learners' motivation by encouraging students' awareness of its potential as a tool for making their language not only easier to understand but more effective. The way one speaks has a great deal to do with the
impression he or she wants to create in a particular context. The way an individual pronounces has much to do with his or her personality and psychological or emotional state at any given time. Acton (1984) Preparing students psychologically as a necessary correlate to improving their pronunciation. 'Not only does personality or emotional state show in pronunciation... but the converse is also true: speakers can control their nerves or inner states by speaking properly' Learners' reasons for learning a second language and the uses they plan to put in the language to can have an effect on how native-like they may want or need to sound. Conclusion: Pronunciation Teaching Materials in The Future Contemporary materials for teaching pronunciation still retaining many of the characteristics of traditional audio-lingual texts. Writers of pronunciation teaching materials will likely pay more attention to learners' sociolinguistic situations and the political implications of attitudes toward nonnative accents. They will also find ways of dealing with the psychological aspects of pronunciation training (confidence building and reflective activities) Listening will continue to play a large
part in pronunciation training. Pronunciation will be taught in concert with other skills, not as a separate entity, but as another string in the communicative bow. The end