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Respiratory System

By Pal, Josiah, Salwa, and Scary
by

Rameia Choudhury

on 31 January 2013

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Transcript of Respiratory System

The Respiratory System By: Pal & Josiah Salwa & Rameia Main Functions of The
Respiratory System Transports air to lungs
Supplies inhaled oxygen to body cells.
Removes carbon from cells and assists in removing other waste products by exhaling.
Helps us talk
It is divided into upper and lower respiratory tracts Parts of the Respiratory System Upper Tracts Include: Nose
Mouth
Pharynx
Epiglottis
Larynx
Trachea Lower Tracts Include: Bronchial Tree
Lungs Main Parts of The Respiratory System Nose
Tonsils
Pharynx
Paranasal Sinuses Nose (nas/o) Organ that provides a passageway for air to enter the lungs.
Nostrils - openings at the end of the nose where the air enters and leaves.
Cila - hairlike structures that filters the air. Tonsil/ Adenoids (Tonsill/o) (Adenoid/o) They help prevent infection that can enter through the mouth or nose Mucous Membranes - lines the wall of the nose as well as the digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems.
Mucus - Gooey liquid made by the mucous membrane that lubricates the lining of the mucous membrane. This is the stuff that comes out of your nose when you are sick known as snott.
Olfactory receptors are nerves that assist us in smelling. Pharynx (Pharyng/o) Also known as the throat. The Para Nasal Sinuses Cavities that make a part of the skull.
Can cause severe headaches, pain, and "sinuses" when inflammed as a result of allergies, weather chanegs, or illness.
Functions: makes head feel lighter, assists in speech and sound protection, and it forms the mucous.
There are 4 Para Nasal Sinuses The 4 Paranasal Sinuses (Sinus/o) Frontal Sinuses - found in the frontal bones of the skull. Infection causes headaches.
Sphenoid Sinuses - found in between the eyes and center of the skull. An infection here can cause eye damage and/ or pain in the ears or neck. Maxillary - these are the largest of all the sinuses. Located on the cheekbones under the eyes. Infection can cause pain in the teeth.
Ethmoid - located in between the eyes and nose. Infection here can cause pain and can lead to headache.
*NOTE: Any pain of infection in any of the sinuses can effect the others as well. Extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the larynx, where it continues on with the esophagus. Funnel-shaped fibro muscular tube Part of both respiratory and digestive. It acts as a passage for both air and food. 3 Main Parts in the Pharynx - Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx Nasopharynx Transports air and opens oropharynx. Oropharynx Transports, air, food, and fluids downward into the laryngopharynx. Laryngopharynx Air, food, and fluids go down into the esophagus from here. Larynx (Larnyg/o) Also known as the voice box.
Contains vocal cords. Involvement with breathing: cords separate to let air pass. Involvement with talking: cords close together and prduce sound. Located between pharynx and trachea. Trachea (Trache/o) Also known as the windpipe. Tube that carries air to and from the lungs. Located in front of the esophagus Made of about 20 rings of tough cartilage. There is a moist, smooth tissue called mucosa that lines the interior of the trachea. Epiglottis Cartilage located in the throat behind the toungue in front of the larynx. Usually faces upward until someone swallows. When a person swallows, the epiglottis faces downward to block the entrance of the larynx so that no food or fluid enters through. Bronchi (Bronchi/o) Also known as the primary bronchi. Contains 2 tubes that lead off from the trachea. Transports air through the bronchiole into the lungs. Alveoli (Alveol/o) Also known as the air sacs.
Where oxygen and carbon dioxide is exchanged.
Each lung contains millions of alveoli. The Lungs
(Pneum/o.....Pneumon/o) Organs responsible for breathing. Right lung is larger. It has 3 lobes - Upper, Middle, Lower. Left lung is smaller. It has 2 lobes - Upper and Lower. This is so because the heart rests upon the left lung. Diseases/Disorders of the Respiratory System Asthma Disorder that causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. Leads to - wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. Causes - Dust, change in weather, exercise, mold, pollen. Symptoms - Coughing with/without sputum, shortness of breath, wheezing that occurs late at night or early morning, Asthma Continued~ Emergency symptoms include - bluish color to the lips or face, rapid pulse, sweating, severe anxiety. Cure - There is no cure, but there are many medications to control it to the extent that it seems to be gone. Such medications are: Controller Medications - These are similar to taking steroid to open up the passageways. Steroids such as corticosteroids help prevent inflammation. Quick Relief Medication - These are the inhalers asthma patients carry around. Bronchitis Long term condition. Swelling and inflammation of the main air passages to the lungs Swelling narrows the airways making it harder to breathe. Symptoms - Coughing, chest discomfort, cough that produces mucus, fatigue, fever, shortness of breath. Bronchitis Continued~ Causes - bacteria infecting the airways. 2 types of Bronchitis - Acute and Chronic. Acute results from infection or anything that irritates the lungs. Chronic is cause by smoking or pollution in the air. Bronchitis Continued~ Cures - The bronchitis is said to clear up on its own within a couple weeks or so, but there are medications to speed up the process. Over the counter medications are said to help with acute bronchitis. Doctors may prescribe medications as well. Oxygen therapy, antibiotics, steroids inhaled as a spray (i.e the inhalers asthma patients use.) COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder) One of the most long, common diseases.
Makes it difficult to breathe. 2 Main forms of COPD - Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema. Emphysema - involves the destruction of the lungs overtime. Causes - smoking (leading cause), exposure to certain gases or fumes, exposure to second hand smoke and pollution, frequent use of cooking fire without proper ventilation. COPD Continued~ Symptoms - cough with/without mucus, fatigue, respiratory infections, shortness of breath (dyspnea), trouble cathing one's breath, and wheezing. COPD Continued~ Cure - There is no cure for COPD, but there are treatments to lessen the harsh symptoms. Treatments - Inhaled steroids, oxygen therapy (increases oxygen level so that the condotion doesn't worsen.), surgery for those who can't control the symptoms with the medications available, and stem cell treatments. More On Stem Cell Therapy They can form into any kind of tissue in a fully develpoed body including any kind of blood cell. After a disease strikes, stem cells work to revive and increase the cells needed to fight the disease in this case it's COPD. Created in bone marrow. The stem cells protect the lungs and regenerate (re-create) them. Emphysema A type of COPD Involves damage to the air scas (AKA Alveoli) Makes it hard to catch your breath. Buildup of Carbon Dioxide Causes - Smoking Treatments - includes inhalers~~~~ Epistaxis Commonly known as the nosebleed.
Causes - infection, trauma, hypertension (high blood pressure) Cures/Treatments - The most common way to treat a nose bleed is to breathe through the mouth, tilt the head back and press to prevent any further bleeding. Diaphram The diaphram allows us to breathe. It's contraction allows us to breathe in. It's relaxation allows us to breathe out. Symptoms - Trouble breathing, smelling Influenza Commonly known as the flu. Viral infection that attacks the respiratory system. Symptoms - Fever over 100 degrees, aching muscles, back, arms & legs, chills, sweats, headache, fatigue, weakness, nasal congestion. Highly Contagious Treatments - bed rest, drinking fluids, taking medications with acetaminophen (Tylenol) to relieve fever, muscle pain and aches. Laryngitis Inflammation of the voice box. Really associated with the loss of voice. Causes - allergies, bacterial infection, injury, irritants and chemicals Often occurs with URI (Upper Respiratory Infection) Symptoms - fever, swollen lymph nodesor glands in the neck. Laryngitis Continued~ Treatment - The usual treatment for laryngitis is similar to that of the flu; resting the vocal cords and drinking fluids. Lung Cancer Cancer that starts at the lungs.
Causes - family history, high levels of air pollution, high levels of arsenic (chemical) in water. Symptoms - chest pain, cough, coughing blood, fatigue, loosing weight, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, wheezing. Treatment/Cures - Lobectomy or a Pneumonectomy is performed. Aside from this, chemotherapy can be performed if it is not a serious case. Chemotherapy kills cancerous tumors in the body. This is very useful in treating lung cancer. Pleurisy Inflammation of the lining of the lungs and chest. Sharp pain when breathing in and out. Causes - chest trauma, rheumatoid arthritis. Symptoms - Cyanosis (Bluish skin color), coughing, shortness of breath. Treatments - Over the counter or prescribed anti inflammatory drugs are given to help. The earlier the treatment, the better. Pneumonia Type of lung infection. Symptoms - cough, fever, hard time breathing, shaking, nausea. Causes - flu, asthma, heart disease, cancer, diabetes. Cures/Treatments - Antibiotics, fever reducers, cough medicine. Rhinitis Inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane. Symptoms - runny nose, blocked nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, sinusitis. Causes - URI (Upper Respiratory Infection), common cold, flu, hay fever (nasal allergy) Treatments - Clearing the nasal passageways, nasal sprays, allergy shots. Sinusitis Inflammation of the sinuses that occurs with an infection from a virus, bacteria, or fungus. Symptoms - bad breath, coughing, fatigue, fever, headache, sore throat. Causes - Cystic Fibrosis, allergic rhinitis. Treatment - antibiotics (amoxicillin kills bacteria), decongestants, pain relievers. Tuberculosis a contagious bacterial infection.
Symptoms - coughing up blood, sweating at night, fatigue, fever, weight loss, difficulty breathing, chest pain, wheeing. It is cause by spread through a sputum, or being airborne. Treatments - medications that must be taken from six to nine months. URI (Upper Respiratory Infection) Infection that affects the upper part of the respiratory system Mainly affects the pharynx, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi. Symptoms - sore throat, headache, runny nose, cough, stuffiness Cause - infectious bacteria reaching the mucous membrane Treatments - Tyelenol, decongestants, pain killers. Fun Facts Highest record for "sneeze speed" was 165 km per hour! :O
Capillaries in the lungs would extend to 1,600 kilometers if placed end to end.
Surface area of the lungs is about the same as a tennis court.
Since they contain so many air sacks, lungs can float in water.
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