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EPIGENETICS

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Amanda Nelson

on 26 April 2011

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Transcript of EPIGENETICS

EPIGENETICS & CANCER Environmental Factors Epigenetics The more you look at epigenetics, the more it seems that our lives are little more than a checklist of various genes that can be turned on or off. Don't want to age as fast? Click here.
Care for a little obesity? Just mark "yes" or "no" with a No. 2 pencil.
We are still trying to figure out what factors lead to which answers on the genetic code that defines our lives. How much is at stake in your dietary choices?
Perhaps more than you think, given the nutritional factors involved in epigenetic change.
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. Gene Control Human Genome Signals from the outside world can work through the epigenome to change a cell's gene expression. This program supports the examination of several aspects of epigenetic regulation, from imprinting, to DNA methylation at promoter or other sites, to chromatin modifications, to gene silencing induced by siRNA, and other novel epigenetic mechanisms, for a role in disease and dysfunction with an environmental exposure component. State-of-the-art technologies are being employed to analyze the epigenetic changes in single genes, signaling pathways or the entire genome in response to exposure. Investigators are using in vivo animal models, in vitro cell cultures, human tissues and/or biologic samples to examine epigenetic changes and to determine the precise mechanism responsible for the change. Project goals were to:
•identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA,
•determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA,
•store this information in databases,
•improve tools for data analysis,
•transfer related technologies to the private sector, and
•address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project.
Completed in 2003, the Human Genome Project (HGP) was a project coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health.

During the early years of the HGP, the Wellcome Trust (U.K.) became a major partner; additional contributions came from Japan, France, Germany, China, and others. Epigenetics & Cancer Cancer Unlike regular cells that die cancer calls do not experience "death" but contiune to grow and divide. Cancer is a gentic disease initiated by alterations in genes.
Specifically four types of genes which are:
Oncogenes genes
Tumor suppressor genes
Suicide genes
DNA- repair genes
Carcinogens Carcinogens are a class of substances that are responsible for damaging DNA, promoting and aiding cancer. Classes of Cancer There are five groups used to classify cancer:
1.) Carcinoma
2.) Sarcoma
3.) Lymphma
4.) Leukemia
5.) Adenoma How cancer is diagnosed and staged What is Cancer How is cancer currently treated Surgery
Radiation
Chemotherapy
Immunotherapy
Hormone therapy
Gene therapy X-Rays
CT scans
MRI scans
PET scans
Ultrasound TNM system
T(1-4)
N(0-3)
M(0-1) A TURNING POINT FOR SCEINCE: What we know so far..... What started it all.... The new discovery.... Unlocking the mystery of Cancer..... Mechanisms of Epigenetic Gene Silencing A result from all this is.... HDAC Histone deacetylase, which is an enzyme (ase = enzyme)

This enzymes causes the histones to become deacetylated.

The stage the chromatin is in is known as "hetrochromatin" HAT Histone acetyltransferase, which is also an enzyme

This enzyme allows the histones to stay acetylated.

The stage the chromation is in is known as "euchromation" HDAC inhibitors (HDI) block DNA methylation and this action and can result in hyperacetylation of histones, thereby affecting gene expression. DNA Methylation CpG or CpC Caps Located at the promoter region

Cytosine and Guanine (C and G)

The Cytosine is what is being methylated. Histone Deacetylation DNA methylation
Chromatin Structure
Gene Silencing

Are all interconnected in mammals Victor Almon McKusick The Enemy Within...... So will there be a cure? Improvements & New Discoveries Catching the Cancer New Cancer Drugs So what of the Cure Health Service now run screening programs for breast, cervical, and bowel cancer.

As a result the detection of cancer is presented much earlier during the disease process, and people are able to benefit from treatment that much more. The hunt for a "cure" is complicated by the fact tat cancer is not one disease, but an umbrella for highly varied collections of disorders.

But even if we were to narrow it down to a specific cancer, the variety in cause and pathology of these conditions is mind-boggling. Preclinical studies have shown that vorinostat (Zolinza) inhibited proliferation, and induced differentiation and apoptosis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) cells.

This data lead to two successful clinical trials that demonstrated how effective vorinostat in relapsed and/or CTCL are. HDAC Inhibitors are used in.... Montherapy
Radiation Therapy
Normal Tissue Radioresponse
Biomarkers Her2 Gene Her2 is a gene that sends control signals to your cells, telling them to grow, divide, and make repairs. References The tags attach to the "on" switch. Cancer cells have abnormally high levels of methylation, which turns the gene switch "off." Intricatness of the System The Emerging Field of Nutrigenomics As we better understand the connections between diet and the epigenome, the opportunity arises for clinical applications.

MAPPING THE EPIGENOME!!!

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Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved March 22, 2011, from HGMIS: http://www.ornl.gov

Martin, A. (2008, July 21). U.S. Human Genome Project Research Guide. Retrieved March 22, 2011, from Human Genome Project: http://www.ornl.gov

McVittie, B. (2006, June). Cancer: diagnostics. Retrieved March 31, 2011, from Epigenetics: http://epigenome.en/en/

McVittie, B. (2006, July). Catching the Cancer out. Retrieved March 31, 2011, from Epigenetics: http://epigenome.eu/en

McVittie, B. (2008, August). Epigentics for HIV. Retrieved March 31, 2011, from Epigenetics: http://epigenome.eu/en

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Shabason, J. (2010, February 8). HDAC Inhibitors. Retrieved March 22, 2011, from Cancer Network: http://www.cancernetwork.com

Stephan, P. (2011, February 9). Breast Cancer. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from About.com: http://breastcancer.about.com
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