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The Five Pillars of Islam

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Jackson Spivey

on 10 February 2014

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Transcript of The Five Pillars of Islam

Jackson Spivey, Anna Claire Stietenroth, and Andrew Bivins
Sawm is the Pillar for fasting during the Holy Month of Ramadan.
Ramadan is the term for ninth month of the Islamic Calendar. Muslims believe that this is the month that the Holy Qur'an was revealed to Muhammad. Fasting during the month of Ramadan became required in the second year after Muslims migrated from Mecca to Medina.
Those who are physically able to fast during this month are required to do so. Fasting happens during the day and ends at sunset. The fast is broken at sunset for a special meal followed by worship.
Fasting does not only apply to food, but also to anything that brings pleasure (such as smoking or even chewing gum). The Qur'an commands three types of fasting: Money fasting, food fasting, and Word fasting.

Reasons to Fast:

Muslims fast to get closer to Allah and increase one's piety.
As they fast Muslims also are going through worship each
night. This worship increases their faith and moves them closer
to Allah.
They also fast to learn the principles of love. Muslims fast
out of deep love of Allah, not out of self discipline or restraint.


(iftaar is the meal Muslims
eat each night after fasting)
Fasting Schedule:
Muslims have a strict fasting schedule. They wake up in the morning and eat a breakfast called
suhoor
, but all eating and drinking must be done before the predawn call to prayer (called the fajr). Most Muslim prayers have a definite time, but this prayer doesn't. Some people pray when the sun is one hour before dawn, while others pray when the sun is just appearing on the horizon.

There are no restrictions on what you can or cannot eat during the morning meal except for the standard restrictions on Muslim diets.

They cannot eat anything after suhoor until the evening meal to close off the fast called al-Ifar.

If at any point during a fast, a Muslim is in danger as a result of the fast (dehydration or other risks), they may break the fast to recover.
Rules of the Fast:

If one breaks the fast unintentionally he or she is allowed to just continue the rest of the day with no consequence.

If one breaks the fast intentionally, however, he or she must:
free a slave. if that is not possible then:
fast for two consecutive lunar months. if that isn't possible then:
feed and/or clothe 60 people in need

I
Will you marry me Bivins?
- Anna Claire

The Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca is known as Hajj. This pilgrimage occurs during the month of Dhu al-Hijjah. Atleast once in his or her life, an able-bodied person is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca.
During Hajj, men are required to wear only the ihram. The ihram is a garment consisting of two unhemmed pieces of cloth. The top of this piece of clothing is draped over the torso, while the bottom is secured by a white sash. The purpose of the ihram is to show the equality of all pilgrims to God. While wearing the Ihram, a pilgrim must not shave, clip their nails, wear perfume, swear or quarrel, uproot or damage plants, have sexual relations, harm or kill wild animals, carry weapons, or wear shoes over the ankles. As for their shoes, the men must wear sandals. Women must wear their usual modest dresses, or hijabs. These garments do not cover the woman's face or hands.
Zakah is the Muslim act of giving 2.5% of your savings to the poor and/or needy.
Zakah is a lot like Christian tithe in many ways.
Zakah
Tithe
Muslims and Christians believe
that all things belong to Allah (God)



"back to God"
to require believers to give money
This belief is what allows both religions
Usually paid directly to the categories
Tithe is paid to the Church
Zakah is mandatory as long as you meet
a minimum amount of money, called nisab
Tithe is highly encouraged, but not mandatory
Zakah is not paid only on certian days
Tithe is paid every Sunday
Zakah is 2.5% of a person's savings
Tithe is 10% of a person's savings
Main points of Zakah elaborated:

The recipient of Zakah is clearly stated. The Qu'ran states that Zakah is to be paid to 8 categories of recipients. This is why it usually doesn't go through a mosque, but straight to these categories.
Nisab is the minimum required amount of money a person must have in order to pay Zakah. This amount is about 85 grams of pure gold. In today's modern money economy you would calculate the amount of Zakah using the current value of pure gold. This calculation is done using the value of gold on the day that the Zakah is paid.
When is Zakah due?
Zakah is due after one lunar year passes (355 days). On the day that Zakah is due the owner deducts any money he owes anyone else, then make sure the remaining amount reaches nisab. If it does reach nisab, he pays Zakah, if not, he doesn't pay Zakah.
SHAHADAH
The Shahadah (also spelled “Shahadah”) is the Islamic Creed, one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The word “Shahada” comes from the verb shahadah, meaning “he testifies” or “he bears witness.” In reciting the Shahada, a Muslim bears witness that Allah is the only true god, and that Muhammad is Allah’s prophet. The shortest form of the Shahadah would be translated:


“There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”

There are 8 categories of recipients
that Zakah goes to:
The poor
The needy
the collectors of Zakah
The spreading of Islam
Captives
Debtors
The cause of Allah
Travelers
Non-Muslim
When a person says the Shahadah, thereby becoming Muslim, their prior good deeds are retained, all of their former bad deeds are instantly forgiven and they are granted a new beginning.




Muhammed is the messenger of God
This means that Muhammad is to be believed in as God's prophet and messenger. Moreover Muslims are required to equally believe in all of God's earlier prophets who preceded Muhammad, such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus among others. Lastly this also means that Muhammad is God's final prophet and messenger
No God but Allah
The first part of the Shahadah states that there is no god in existence besides God, the One, the Only. Those who believe in Him are expected to affirm His Oneness, to worship Him, to love Him, to have hope in His Mercy and Pardon, to fear His anger, and to obey Him. These are God's rights. Whoever gives God His rights earns the right to His forgiveness and exemption from His punishment

Even in the 7th century, the pilgrimage that is the Hajj was an ancient tradition. Parts of the Hajj trace back to the times of Abraham, which was around 200 BCE. As we know from the Christian Bible, Abraham's wife, Sarah, was unable to conceive a child, and after listening to the desires of his wife, Abraham chose his servant Hagar as his second wife. A few months later, Hagar gave birth to their son, Ishamael. It is believd by many that Abraham was summoned by God to leave his wife and son in the desert. Desperate for food and water, Hagar ran with her baby between the hills of Safa and Marwa seven times. At her wits end, Hagar laid her baby in the sand and begged for God to help her. Ishmael cried. He then stomped his foot on the ground (it is also said that Gabriel stomped his foot or the tip of his wing on the ground), and the Zamzam Well appeared, bringing clean water to the desperate Hagar and Ishmael.
During the Pre-Islamic Era, or the time before Muhammad, known as the "Days of Ignorance," tribes from all around the Arabian Peninsula would come together to go on the pilgrimage that is the Hajj. Even before receiving his revelaion, Muhammad performed 'Umrah'. During these times, Muslims would meet together in mass numbers and travel to Mecca. The most common meeting places to gather before leaving on the long journey were Cairo and Damasus. In these places, the Sultan would stand on top of the Zuweila where he would send off the pilgrims.

In 630 CE, Muslim leaders were led by Muhammad from Medina to Mecca. This was the first Hajj to be performed by only Muslims. This was the only Hajj that Muhammad attended. The Hajj became known as one of th Five Pillars of Islam when Muhammad destroyed all of the pagan idols from the Ka'aba, which is a large, square, holy Islmaic site, and he then devoted the building to Allah.
Salat-ul-Fajr
the first of the Five prayers of the day.lt can be performed at any time between the breaking of the dawn and until sunrise. It consists of four raka's which are two units or seperate prayers. (morning prayers)

In the early days of the Hajj, this pilgrimage was a very dangerous journey. Ian Jubayr noted many dead Muslims who had died of thirst during their travels. During the 17th century, a large group of Egyptian pilgrims lost 900 camels and 1,500 people on the trip.
Salat-ul-Zuhr
It consists of four raka's, (4 units); Its prayer time begins after the sun goes down from its highest point until it is about midway from setting. (noon prayer)
Salat-ul-Asr
It consists of four raka's (4 units). Its time begins soon after the time for Zuhr prayer ends and goes until just before sunset (afternoon prayer)
Salat-ul-Maghrib
It consists of three raka's (3 units). Its time begins just after sunset and goes into an hour and a half of prayer (evening prayer)


Salat-ul-lsha
It consists of four raka's (4 units) and its time begins about an hour and a half after sunset and extends to dawn. (night prayer)
Salah
Salah is the daily ritual prayer done by all Muslims as one of the five Pillars of Islam. It is performed five times a day by every Muslim. Salah is a precise worship, different from praying whenever one feels like it. Muslims pray or, more correctly, worship five times throughout the day:

· Between first light and sunrise.

· After the sun has passed the middle of the sky.

· Between mid-afternoon and sunset.

· Between sunset and the last light of the day.

· Between darkness and midnight.


What Is To Be Done Before Performing


1.Ritual Purity


2.Clean place.

3.Men to perform obligatory salah at the mosque (except for a legal excuse; illness, etc.); rest
of prayers at home.


4Women to perform salah in the innermost places at home (they are allowed to pray at the
mosques, but not mandatory).


5.Wearing loose clothes that does not shape the private parts for men (and extend down until
above the ankle), while women cover their entire bodies except face and hands.


6.Standing close to a sutrah in front of the musallee (person in prayer). [Sutrah: an object like a
pillar, sticking or laying down on the ground, set so that no human or animal can walk in front
of the person performing salah].




Once in Mecca, a hajji, or a Muslim who has already been to Mecca as a pilgrim, completes a series of ritual acts that symbolize the lives of Abraham and Hagar., and also the solidarity of Muslims worldwide.
The Hajj begins on the eigth day of the twelfth lunar month of Dhu al-Hijjah. On the first day, if the Muslim people are not already wearing their ihrams, they are sent to the nearby city of Mina to change clothing and spend the rest of their day. Durng this time, the government in Saudi Arabia sets up white tents to accomodate the Muslim's changing of garments.
Tarwaf
Tawaf is the element of the Hajj that occurs when the pilgrims visit the Ka'aba.
Upon arrival, the Mulims walk around the large stone structure seven times counter-clockwise. They also must kiss the stone on each round of marching. If because of the crowds, the people are not able to reach the stone to kiss it, they may point towards the Stone with their right hand. After completing each circuit, a pilgrim must declare, "Here I am at Thy service O Lord, here I am. Here I am at Thy service and Thou hast no partners. Thine alone is All Praise and All Bounty, and Thine alone is The Sovereignty. Thou hast no partners." The seventh circuit completes the Tarwaf. Only three shouts are madatory to complete the Tarwaf, but most groups perform the Tarwaf with seven shoutings. The place where the pilgrims walk is known as the "Mutaaf."
Normally, every part of the Hajj is done at one time and there is no eating permitted during this time, but the pilgrims are allowed to drink water because the risk of dyhydration is really high. Men are asked to complete three circuits at a hurried pace, followed by four relaxed circuits, allowing the men focus on their god.
After completing their seven circuits, the pilgrims are encouraged to say two Rakaat prayers in the Muqaam Ibrahim, or "Place of Abraham," which is located inside of the mosque (because of large crowds, it is also allowed for Muslims to say their prayers anywhere inside of the mosque.) On the same day, pilgrims must run or walk between the hills of Safa and Marwah, completing the sa'i. This ritual act to Allah is a re-enactment of Hagar's desperate search to find water in the desert. This act was originally performed in the open air, but now it is located in the Masjid al-Haram mosque.
Arafat
On the next morning, the eighth day, the pilgrims travel to Mina where they spend the night praying. On the ninth day, the Muslims leave Mina to travel to Mt. Arafat where they recite the Qur'an. This destination is near the hill where it is said that Muhammad gave his last sermon. This act is known as Wuquf and it has been deemed the highlight of the hajjah. The pilgrims must stay on the Plain of Arafat until sunset. There is nothing required for the pilgrims to pray or do, but most of these Muslims spend the day praying to Allah, along with thinking about their lives. If one does not complete this phase of the Hajj, their entire pilgrimage will be set as invalid.
Muzdalifah
Once the sun sets, the pilgrims travel from Mt. Arafat to Muzdalifah. Upon arrival, they sleep on the ground and then in the morning, the Muslims collect stones to throw at the Devil the next day once they return to Mina.
Ramy al-Jamarat
Once in Mina, the pilgrims begin performing Ramy al-Jamarat. This act shows and symbolizes their definace and intolerance of the Devil. It also symbolizes the triumphs and challenges that Abraham faced. The Devil challenged Abraham three times and each time, Abraham refused. There are three pillars at this location (Ramy al-Jamarat) and each pillar marks one of Abraham's refusals. First, the pilgrims stone jamrat'al'Aqabah, or the largest pillar. Next, they climb the Jamaraat Bridge where they thow their stones at the Jamaraat. Seven pebbles are thrown at the other pillars on the second occasion. This act completes the Ramy al-Jaarat.
Eid al-Adha
Next, the Muslims perform Eid al-Adha. During this time, the Muslims slaughter animals in honor of Abraham, Haggar, and Ishmael. Unlike in historical times, today Muslims will buy a voucher beforehand in exchange for slaughtering an animal. Because of this, butchers will honor the vouchers by slaughtering sheep and camels and sending their meat to needy people all over the world (zakat). At the same time, Muslims all over the world are participating in similar sacrifices during a worldwide festival called Eid al-Adha.
Tawaf Al-Ifaadah
The next day, Muslims once again visit Masjid al-Haram mosque where they re-visit to Ka'aba. They perform another Tawaf called Tawaf al-Ifadah. This is done so that Allah knows that his followers are in a hurry to show their love and responses for him. They then spend the night of the 10th at Mina. On the 11th, the Muslims must throw seven stones at the three zamarat in Mina. The pilgrims must return to Mecca on the 12th, and if they cannot leave Mina before sunset, they must stay and complete the stoning ritual once again before returning to Mecca.
Journey to Medina
Some of the Muslims who embark on this journey choose to travel to Medina, where they can visit Muhammad's tomb and Riad ul Jannah, and also the graves of Muhammad's comrades.
Tawaf al-Wida
Before leaving Mecca, the Muslim pilgrims must complete a farewell tarwaf called Tawaf al-Wida. The word 'Wida' means 'to bid farewell.'
Umrah
This pilgrimage to Mecca can be completed at any time of the year and it is not mandatory. Umrah does not consist of as many steps as the Hajj does. Ihram, Tawaaf, and Sai are to be performed. A fresh start is made once the Muslim cuts his or her hair.
The Five Pillars of Isam are obligations that each Muslim must achieve in his or her life time.
Sources:

http://www.saudiembassy.net/about/country-information/Islam/five_pillars_of_Islam.aspx
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hajj
Wiki articles
http://www.irusa.org/campaigns/zakah/
http://www.atlascorps.org/blog/?p=2309 , http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/practices/sawm-fasting.htm
http://www.answeringmuslims.com/2012/10/what-is-shahada.html
http://www.examiner.com/article/islam-101-what-is-the-shahadah
http://www.islamreligion.com/articles/9/
http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/salat/salat3.htm

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