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Transcript of Sponges
Phylum Porifera What is a sponge? A primitive sedentary aquatic invertebrate
with a soft porous body
and one of the least animal like,
but simplest of all animals How do they get energy? Do not have mouths- use flagella to propel water through pores
"Inhale" water with nutrients and oxygen
Have a symbiotic relationship with other small organic matter (protists)
"Exhale" water with waste and carbon dioxide How do they reproduce? Asexually:
Budding: a small piece breaks off and grows into another sponge
Can play role of either male or female
Male sponge releases sperm which floats into the female
A larva is released, floats around for awhile, then sticks to something solid and begins to grow Where can you find them? All sponges live in water
99% of sponges live in marine water
1% live in fresh water
Anywhere from 8km deep all the way to the ocean floor
Prefer warmer and clearer waters over murky Calcareous Sponges Skeletal structure is made out of calcareous (needle-like structures of calcium carbonate)
Do not have spongin (protein fibers)
Generally small, pale, and found in shallow water Glass Sponges Made of siliceous spicules (silic acid)
Has 6 rays intersecting at right angles (like a toy jack)
Have the ability to contract
Can send an electrical impulse when threatened Fibrous Sponges Most diverse of sponge groups- 90% of the 5,000 species are fibrous
Structure is made of fibrous proteins
Bathing sponges are made from this type Evolutionary History First and most simple of multicellular animals
Oldest sponge fossil shows it dating back to between 650-545 million years ago Orange Elephant Ear Sponge Azure Vase Sponge Stovepipe Sponge Ecological Significance Provide homes for other sea life- crabs, protists,
Important to nutrient cycle in coral reefs
Release nitrogen gas that is thought to maybe help the surrounding reef life remain stable
Human use: medicines and hygiene Topics of Interest Can pump 20,000 times its volume in 24 hours
Can contain 16,000 other animals inside it
One of the largest sponges ever found was over 10 ft. wide
Bright colors protect against UV rays
Can live on other organisms such as crabs (this is the only time you'll see a sponge move!)
Can live on hard or soft surfaces Sources: http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=3431
Bergquist, P. R. 1978. Sponges. Hutchinson and Company, London. 268 pp.
Broadhead, T. W. 1983. Sponges and Spongiomorphs, Notes for a Short Course. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. 220 pp.
De Vos, L., K. Rutzler, N. Boury-Esnault, C. Donadey and J. Vacelet. 1991. Atlas of Sponge Morphology. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Rigby, J. K. 1987. Phylum Porifera. In Boardman, R. S., A. H. Cheetham, and A. J. Rowell (eds.), Fossil Invertebrates. pp. 116-139. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Palo Alto, California.
Ruppert, E. E. and R. D. Barnes. 1995. Sponges and Placozoans. In Invertebrate Zoology: Sixth Edition. pp. 73-94. Saunders College Publishing, New York. Lesson Plan Brainstorm