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Motivation Design Aid

Course design under the Expectancy-Value Theory
by

Tim Franklin

on 16 April 2013

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Transcript of Motivation Design Aid

Motivation and Design How to design instructional products using the Expectancy-Value Theory of motivation. FIRST: A look at the Expectancy-Value Theory. This theory (E-V) consists of two main parts - Expectancies and Expectancies are made up of an individual's personal beliefs about their own capabilities, and how they pertain to performance of a particular skill, like "play basketball" or "solve an equation". Image from Jana Bouc, janasjournal.com Image from Tufts University, ceeo.tufts.edu Values, on the other hand, are an individual's beliefs about the reasons they might even engage in a particular task in the first place. Image from Bryant Arnold, cartoonaday.com Values Together, Expectancies and Values are powerful tools for predicting the way learners will behave during instruction, and are important factors to consider when working through the design process. For Example: Learners with high personal expectancy for a skill often try harder than learners with low expectancy, since they more often predict success.
Also, learners who have a high level of value for a skill often will keep trying (even with low expectancy), whereas learners who do not value a skill will often give up more easily. So let's get to it. The Design Process We'll look at designing with the E-V theory through the entire ADDIE process: Analysis: During the front-end analysis, it is important to find out as much information as possible about the learners' expectancies and values as they pertain to the skill at hand.
When gathering information, be sure to find out: Analyze
Design
Develop
Implement
Evaluate Past learner performance with skill Current learner expectancy level with skill How important the skill is to the learner What perceived impact the skill will have on the learner Current learner competency levels The reason(s) the learner is or will be present during the instruction. In essence - find out why the learner(s) are there, how much they want to be there, how well they think they will do, and how important they feel the instruction is. Design & Development: During both the design & development phases of design, it is important to use the information gleaned from the analysis phase. Consider the E-V responses from potential learners to fuel the design of your instructional product. Find ways to: Maximize learner expectancy Make the instruction valuable to each learner Connect instruction to learner goals Learner goals for instruction Suggestions for maximizing learner expectancy: Start each learner off at their individual competency levels so learners are neither bored nor overwhelmed Split up instruction into manageable "chunks" Build in frequent skill checks Make instructional materials accessible and easy-to-use Implementation: During implementation, care should be taken to carry out all the design plans for keeping learner expectancy and value at a maximum. Prepare instruction facilitators for upkeep of E-V strategies Make students aware of any technological requirements on their part - or provide training before the instruction begins. Basically, ensure all the work put in up to this point does not go to waste - prepare all participants for maximizing learner expectancy and value. Evaluation: Apart from the regular evaluation for the instruction, an evaluation can take place which measures how effectively the design utilized E-V strategies.
Questions should mirror the investigation which took place in the "analysis" section: How difficult did the material seem to the learners? How did the learners feel about their performances? Was the instruction valuable? Did the instruction improve competency or expectancy? Did the instruction seem worthwhile? Did the instruction or instructor allow the learners to reach their goals? Questions like these should indicate whether or not the instruction was effective at maximizing learner motivation according to the expectancy-value theory. Utilizing motivational strategies stemming from the Expectancy-Value Theory can greatly increase learner engagement, and lead to a higher overall success rate for instruction. When learners are properly motivated, the job of the educator or instructor becomes much easier, and the instructional activities become more fun, engaging, and meaningful to the learners.

The key is to understand what drives your learners, and then plan accordingly. SOURCES: Idaho State University College of Education - ADDIE
http://ed.isu.edu/addie Klauda, S.L., Tonks, S., & Wigfield, A. (2009). Expectancy-value
theory. In Wentzel, K., & Wigfield, A. (Eds.), "Handbook of motivation at school" (pp. 55-75). New York, NY: Routledge. Meece, J.L., Pintrich, P.R., & Schunk, D.H. (2013). Motivation in
education: Theory, research, and applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
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