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Transcript of Stuart Social
the greatest warriors and the wisest preists. The Emporer was called the Huey Tatoani, or the Great Speaker.
He represented the god Huitzilopochtli and everyone had to obey him.
The Huey Tatoani was not handed down the family. A man had to prove that he was worthy to hold such a position to the Council of Wise Men. Spanish Economy An important part of the Aztec economy, which was based on agriculture,
was the payment of tribute to the Aztec emporer. For the emporer to support Tenochtitlan and the two other major cities of the Triple Alliance, he needed the tribute paid to him by conquered societies.
Tribute from the territories ensured a steady flow of goods for the Aztec such as, food, cacao beans, lumber, cotton, or luxury items such as featherwork and precious metals.
The movement of different kinds of products throughout the empire encouraged the development of new businesses and improved the economy. No coins were used, but cacao beans were usually used to buy things.
The Aztecs also built Chinampas, which are artificial land built by the Aztecs to grow crops on. many Aztec families lived on chinampas, so they could tend to there crops anytime.
The King and the Queen were the highest ranked
and most poweerful people in Spain. The Spanish
believed in the Divine Right of Kings, a doctrine
which stated that only God could give somone the
power to rule, and since He gave King Ferdinand
and Queen Isabella the crown, they would rule until
death, then a relative would take over.
The King and Queen had near absolute power. The only
way they were limited was by the chuch, and sometimes by the force of law. In Spain, the main economic activities were agriculture and the manufature of wool products. Barcelona and Valencia were major sea ports for importing and exporting goods because of their position on the Medditerranean coast.
Because of Black Death the population of Spain greatly decreased, putting a dent in Spain's output of goods. The sea ports, like Barcelona and Valencia suffered because of loss of workers. They could not compete with the Italian sea ports because of the small number of workers.
Over time, agriculture diminished in Spain, until most of the land that was previously used for farming was used for nobles and lords.
In the Aztec worldview, humans played only a small role
in the world. The human race was put in the world only to fight and die for the gods and to keep the world order in balance. The Aztecs believed the gods determined their future, and decided when they die.
The Aztecs believed that they were Huitzilopochtli's chosen people; it was their duty to make sure the sun never died, and the earth survived.
They believed in many gods and goddesses, in life and in death. Each god or goddess was in an eternal battle with another god or goddess. No god ot goddess was purely good or purely evil. The Aztecs believed they had to help some of the gods to win their battles.
The Aztecs also believed the world was created through sacrifice and their role was to maitain the universe in balance through their rituals and sacrifices.
The Aztecs would sacrifice enemy soilders captured in battle, and sometimes even their own people. They were convinced that without sacrificing human blood, the universe would be destroyed. The Aztecs had two calenders, one similar to the european calender, a 365.25 day solar yearly calender. This, their main calender, was called the xiuhtlapohualli. The second calender was a ritusl calender called the tonalpohualli, which had 260 days. The xiuhtlapohualli was made up of 18 months, each month having 20 days, and 5 useless days at the end of the year, called nemontemi.
Each month was deticated to a god, and had a religous festival deticated to that god. The calender also regulated agricultural activities such as planting and harvesting, and determined market days.
The tonalpohualli calender was made up of 13 numbers and 20 signs that represented an animal, something natural such as water or grass, or an abstract idea such as movement. The combined to produce 260 individual days. Each day was a sign that something was good, bad or indifferent. The Aztecs believed that what day they were born on decided their fate. Until 1582, Europeans followed the calender thath was made by Julius Caesar in 46 BC. The calender is 365.25 days. The .25 day is accounted for because of Febuary 29, which happens every four years .Each year is divided into 12 unequal months. When this calender was first used, the solstices and equinoxes fell on the 25th of the month. By the late 1500 they fell on the 11th of the month, because the calender was not accurate enough, and over the centuries, the count was inaccurate that many days.
In 1582, Pope Greogory Xlll decreed that the date following Thusrday, October 4, would be Friday, October 15. This would return the Spring Equinox to March 21. The new calender was called the Gregorian calender. In Europe, it became the standard calender. In Spain, Latin was the language used by Spanish scholars and the clergy. It later became known as Spanish. Spanish literature by 1500 was rich and varied, reflecting its wide variety of people speaking and using it.
During the middle ages the troubadors wrote many great peices, long poems that focused on the social and political situations going on at that time. troubadors sang their poems for the commeners, the nobles, and royalty in castles and royal courts.
By the end of the 15th century, short, lryical poems became popular. These poems were shorter than the great, elaborate poems. These short poems were also not as serious as the longer poems, often being about love or bravery.
Spanish architecture was greatly influenced by the Islamic Moors. They created unique architectectural features that Spanish architecs still use today. When King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella ruled Spain in the 1400s and 1500s, they decreed that all Spaniards must become Roman Catholics.
People who practiced other religions, like Islam or Judaism, where forced to give that religion up and become Roman Catholic. If they didn't, they were killed or banished from Spain. Today, almost all of Spain's population is Roman Catholic, although Muslims and Jews in Spain are now aloud to practice their reigion freely. Children of noble people attended a calmecac, a school for noble children. Girls and boys went to separate calmecac schools. The children learned to understand the history and ways of their elders, under priestly guidance.
The Macehualtin (workers; tradespeople, peasants, and builders) children attended a local school, called a telpochcalli. There they were taught basic skills, the elements of warfare, and good citizenship. The children learned the foundation of their history and religion.
Some Macehualtin children who were very smart were sent to a calmecac. This was rare, but when it happened, the macehualtin child was regarded well.
When boys turned 15, they attended either a calmecac or a cuicacalli. The calmecac was run by priests who taught religion. Calmecac students had religious duties, and were taught history, astronomy, poetry, and writing. The cuicacalli was more of a military school. All boys were trained in war and there was rivalry between the schools, which lead to fights. In addition to their schooling all boys also had to work hard on their family's land.
Aztec girls were mainly taught at home and began sewing when they turned four and cooking when they were 12. Their education was basically a training for marriage, although noble girls spent a year when they were 12 or 13 helping in the temple, and some became professional priestesses.
Aztec fathers and mothers raised their children with care, making sure the children knew their responsibilities and knew necessary life skills. When the children misbehaved, the punishment was painful. The Aztecs lived on a small island in Mexico, and it was very hot and humid there. They chose to live on that perticular island because that is where they saw an eagle eating a snake while perched on a cactus. They did this because Hiutzilopochtli, the sun god, told the Aztecs to live wherever they see an eagle eating a snake while perched on a cactus.
The Aztecs searched for centuries, some Aztecs set out looking, and never found it. But when they finnally found the island, there was a massive celebration.
The Aztecs built chinampas, artificial islands for growing crops. Some workers lived on chinampas their whole life, so the Aztecs could grow more crops. In Aztec society, there were 3 classes; slaves, commoners and nobilty. Slaves were usually made up of poor people or their children. This was much the same in other cities, Native and European, except that in the Aztec society, slaves could buy back their freedom.
The Commoners are made of the macehualtin, or workers. They work in agriculture and common trades. If they are involved in agriculture, usually they work in other peoples land, but what benifites the commoners is that they are allowed to keep the produce. Commoners were given lifetime ownership of an area of land. The lowest group of commoners was not allowed to own property. They worked on the land of others, but never got to be the owners.
The Nobility was ade up of people who were born into their position. These people werer the priests, kings and lords. These higher ranks have a much smaller population than slaves or commoners In Spain, there were two main classes, the commoners and the nobility. The commoners made up almost 90 percent of the population. Amoung the commoners, the peasant farmers and herdsmen had the lowest status. Most peasants lived and worked on huge estates that belonged to the nobles. Only a tiny percentage of peasants eventually owned land or were able to save money.
The nobles in Spain were very powerful and ruled their estates almost like monarchs. Although King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella took back much of the land owned by nobility, huge amounts of land were still left for the nobles. The estates were passed down to the oldest son. The title Spanish Grande was given to the highest level of nobility and the lower levels were reffered to as dons. Spain is below France, and seperated from Africa by only 13 kilomiters of water. Spain and Portugal are right beside each other, with Spain sort of overlapping Portugal.
Most os Spains boundries are water, except to the west, it borders Portugal, and to the north, it borders France. Spain is made up mostly of plateaus, which are surrounded by mountain ranges. Spain and the Aztecs both used a calender which consisted of 365.25 days. The Society was much the same, two main classes, commoners and nobilty. The commoners worked for the nobilty in both societies. Spanish and Aztec land were both good for growing crops. They both did this, and it help their economies greatly.