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Opening Skinner's Box Chapter 4

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Huda Kutmah

on 25 August 2015

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Transcript of Opening Skinner's Box Chapter 4

Questions We Still Have
Fire/Smoke Experiment: Experiment #2
Bystander Effect: Experiment #1
The Significance of Both Experiments:
Two psychologists, John Darley of NYU and Bibb Latané of Columbia University wanted to see what people do in a situation similar to the murder
if people would help or watch
how many people would help or watch
what would their reaction be
They recruited people to sit in separate rooms and talk about their issues
about 5 people in one group
Each would talk for 2 minutes and all could hear but not see each other
A pre-recorded voice confessed that he gets seizures and gets a "seizure" while speaking. He starts choking and eventually goes silent

If the subject was in a group then less likely to help but if alone 85% chance he would help
They learned that if the subject doesn’t mention something or help in the beginning then he will never
When in a group the responsibility is “diffused”
They realized that it is better for the victim to have one witness
August 26, 2015

AP Psych
Kitty Genovese Murder
Story behind the experiments:
Kitty Genovese was brutally raped and murdered by a sketchy man (Moseley) who had followed her after she got out of her car

She screamed and yelled for help, the lights turned on through the windows of the buildings around her but nobody did anything

Only after it was over and she died did someone call the police

The murder lasted about 30 minutes and there were 37 witnesses

The Five Stages of Helping Behavior
1. The potential helper must notice an event is occurring

2. The potential helper must interpret the event as one in which help is needed

3. The potential helper must assume personal responsibility

4. The potential helper must decide what action to take

5.The potential helper must then take action

Chapter 4: Darley and Latané
Huda and Skylar
Darley and Latané recruited two college students as actors. One college student was the naive subject. Everyone sat in a room together and filled out a questionnaire of college life

Several minutes into the experiment, D & L crouched in the building’s ductwork, released a form of nonhazardous but convincing smoke through the room’s vent.

When the actors did not display alarm and continued filling out the questionnaire, the confused subject would follow their lead
Only one subject reported the smoke to the experimenter down the hall in four minutes, three within the entire experimental period and the rest not at all
When the subject was alone in the room with smoke, they almost always reported the smoke immediately
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