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The French Empire
Transcript of The French Empire
The French Establish a Fur Trade
Early 1500's- Explorers in search of a...
Northwest Passage: a water route to Asia through the cold waters of present day Canada
What did the Natives want in return?
Indians eagerly traded for...
into areas already claimed by neighboring tribes. This provoked wars between Indian groups.
Trade Competition intensifies...
Native Americans sought after European trade opportunities while at the same time keeping their native neighbors AWAY from Euro settlements.
The French king claims the region around the St. Lawrence River- several French Colonies are developed along the river.
French mariners fished for cod and hunted for whales and seals-they met Indian hunters willing to trade for furs.
They were SCARCE in Europe due to excessive hunting!
Beaver fur in particular was in high demand and commanded high prices.
metal arrowheads, hoes, axes, knives, hatchets, all useful both as tools and weapons
they were also interested in iron and brass kettles- useful to cook meats
More and more natives began hunting in order to supply the new foreign market instead of for their basic needs alone.
The Natives managed to kill off the beaver faster then it could reproduce- this pushed them to expand their hunting grounds...
Which groups do you think won?
Why would they be interested in keeping their neighbors away from settlements?
Competition for furs...
French traders also competed...plundering and even killed men over FUR!
A French company builds a fortified trading post to repel rivals.
Quebec: the first permanent European settlement in Canada
built in 1608
The French were interested in trading goods with the Indians- they needed them as hunters and suppliers of fur
Few in number, the French took very little land
The French did NOT enslave, dispossess or intimidate the natives...as it was not in their best interest economically
Samuel de Champlain: Quebec's founder
Sam traded with a small group of Natives all of whom held the Iroquois as a foe. They expected the he would help them to against this common foe in return for maintaining trade relations.
Champlain agrees to help...BIG MISTAKE! :0
Iroquois are shocked to have been met with guns...there wooden shields offer them no protection.
Almost instantly Iroquois chiefs and warriors are killed...the remaining warriors run away completely confused.
You may have won the battle but...
Champlain made enemies of the powerful Iroquois
For DECADES they raided French settlements
They also abandoned their wooden armor and avoided mass formations.
Instead they relied on trees for cover and began hit and run raids- adopting to the new type of warfare they had seen
They acquired their own guns from Dutch traders
The Battle of Lake Champlain
Life in New France...
Resembled that of New Spain.
BOTH were strictly controlled by the powerful monarchs of their homelands
New France grew slowly:
lands attracted few immigrants, labor intensive: dense forests needed clearing prior to farming
long Canadian winters shocked newcomers from temperate France
Worst of all newcomers dreaded the Iroquois raids.
Most French colonists were farmers
Indians DOMINATED the vast lands of forests and lakes while colonists remained few and scattered.
In the Great Lakes and Illinois area the French established a few small colonies, including Detroit.
They lived by a mix of farming and trade.
coureurs de bois: adopting Indian ways
metis: the children of native and French marriages
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