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Ireland

Irish history summary
by

Daniela Harriague

on 17 May 2012

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Transcript of Ireland

IRELAND
History
Revolution
Celts
British Empire
Vikings
St. Patrick
Great famine
5th CENTURY
St Patrick brought Christianism
795 ad
Viking raids and settlements
1014 ad
Brian Boru - Irish High King - defeated the Scandinavians
Rock of Cashel
British vs Irish
Tiernan O'Rourke
lost his kingdom and his wife to
Dermot Mac Murrough
the lady was returned but
O'Rourke conquered his rival
Dermot went to
Henry II of England
and then joined the Norman leaders in Wales
Richard FitGillert de Clare (Strongbow)
helped him regain his throne in exchange of his
daughter's hand and control of the kingdom
Normans
stayed and built castles
but they acquired Irish
culture and became
"more Irish than the
Irish themselves"
Trim castle
Richard II
Tudor conquest
Came to supress the
Irish but lost his throne
in England.
For centuries, no English
king returned to Ireland.
English rule concentrated
in a small region around Dublin.
The Pale
1500s
Considered the strong Catholic
domain a threat to their kingdom.
Scottish-Presbyterian settlers were implanted in Ulster.
Their colony grew pushing Gaelic-speaking Catholics
back towards the Shannon. English laws spread over Ireland.
Stuart
Early 1600s
Following the English civil and religious wars,
Ulster Irish and both native Irish and Catholic
descendants of the Normans rose and won
memorable victories (1641).
OLIVER CROMWELL
-defeated Charles I and came to Ireland
-smashed Catholic Ireland, massacred people
-exodus of 30,000 Irish to the continent
-within 50 years, Catholic Ireland was largely
owned by English Protestants
-new system established: wealthy and absent English landlords / massive, poor peasant class of Irish
NO GREATER VILLAIN
IN IRISH FOLK!!!
1660
Cromwellian government collapsed
Charles II was called from exile
Catholic king - took a fifth of the loyal Catholics' land.
Succeeded by James II (Catholic).
When he had a son, English noblemen
called Protestant
James II fled to France and in
1689 came to Ireland with the French Army.
William arrived in Ireland and
"The war of the two kings" began.
Penal laws for the Irish
"An Irishman could not speak his own language, practise his religion, be educated, hold office or own a horse worth more than $10".
Secret schools were opened where
Latin, Greek and Irish were spoken.
Secret Masses were spoken in caves
and open fields.
1798
Open revolt
fomented by Wolfe Tone and France
DEFEATED
From 1718 to 1775 200,000 Presbyterians sailed to USA and had an important role in the American revolution
THE GREAT FAMINE
In 6 years 2 million people died or left
(to Canada, USA, England and Australia).
Potato crops were affected by a fungus
Famine memorial in Dublin
1848
Young Irelanders' rebellion
DEFEATED
1867
Fenian rebels rose
with the help of the Irish from USA
In the following decades, the struggle over the land
was renewed by leaders like Daniel O'Connell.
EASTER WEEK 1916
With England preoccupied by World War 1
Rebellion struck again
Organised by the Irish Republican Brotherhood
It lasted from Easter Monday 24th April to 30th April
There was also the question of the Home Rule, which would give SOME but not TOTAL freedom to Ireland. This was a reason for confrontation between nationalists.
Unionists from the North (wanted to continue as part of the UK) vs Republicans from the South (wanted total independence from the UK).
Patrick Pearse
James Connolly
(Irish Volunteers)
(Irish Citizen Army)
Rebels took the General Post Office as headquarters
and Pearse read a Proclamation of the Republic.
Rebels were outnumbered and in order
not to lose more civilians, they surrendered
on Saturday 29th April.
Thousands were arrested and the leaders,
among others, were executed by firing squad.
1918 - 1923
In the 1918 general election, the Sinn Féin got 70% of the Irish
seats to the UK Parliament and Eamon de Valera became president.
They declared they would form an Irish parliament in Dublin (the First Dáil).
Britain responded with troops.
The Irish volunteers became the Irish Republican Army (IRA). They attacked mostly the Royal Irish Constabulary - Police force from the British Government.
The war of Independence
1922 - The Dáil Éireann accepts a treaty which lets
Northern Ireland stay out of the free state (Republic)
Even if the Republicans won, violence continued, especially in the North.
1949
Eire abandoned the Commonwealth
and became the
1969-1970
The Troubles
Rioting in Northern Ireland where Loyalists
attacked Civil Rights protestants.
Violence increases and the Provisional IRA is formed
to continue armed fighting in Northern Ireland.
1972
BLOODY SUNDAY
1973
Ireland becomes part of the EU
1994
The IRA called a ceasefire in
Northern Ireland which ended in
1996 with a bombing in London.
1998
A peace treaty is signed to stop
armed violence in the North
2005
The IRA formally orders an end to its
armed violence, destroying its arms.
Republic of Ireland
The luck of the Irish
William of Orange
Full transcript