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A Look at How the Brain Learns: According to David A. Sousa Prezi

Presentation for educators based on the Book "How the Brain Learns", by David A. Sousa

Amanda Tripoli

on 1 March 2013

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Transcript of A Look at How the Brain Learns: According to David A. Sousa Prezi

Novelty The brain has a persistent interest in novelty (changes in the environment). We must keep up with the growing increase of novelty are students are becoming accustom to, outside of school. Keeping your classroom repetitive and predictable effects the brain's interest. Some ways you can incorporate novelty into your lessons are by:
*Multi-Sensory Instruction
*Quiz Games
*Music Self-concept is shaped by our past experiences. As educators we need to focus on turning the negative past experiences into positive ones. How can we do this? To be a successful teacher we need to understand how the human brain works. How it functions and some environmental factors that influence its development. In this presentation I will be taking you through some of the key concepts. Information Processing Model How the Brain deals with information Information Processing Model First lets focus on the two temporary memories, the criteria for long term storage, and the impact on the self-concept on learning
Sensory Preference :
Most people don't use all five senses equally during learning. They develop preferences for learning. Think Multiple Intelligences.
Also think about your learning style, does it have an impact on how you teach?

Sensory Register
Uses the individuals past experiences to determine the data's degree of importance.
Allows the brain to focus on whats important. Sense and Meaning Ways we can incorporate meaning in new learning: Modeling and using examples from student's experiences. It is also important to incorporate sense and meaning into Closure Closure is an investment that can pay off dramatically in increased retention of learning.

In your field come up with a way you could incorporate closure into a lesson. Share with a neighbor . *It can start a lesson
*It can occur during a lesson (procedural closure)
*It should also take place at the end of the lesson to tie all sublearnings together (terminal closure) When to use Closure Closure is Different from Review

Review: teacher does most of the work: repeating key concepts, rechecking understanding

Closure: Student does most of the work, they mentally rehearse and summarize the concepts and decide whether they make sense and have meaning. The Teacher Must:

Give directions that focus the students on the new learning.

Provide adequate time for the cerebral summarizing to occur.

Include a following discussion for student accountability.

Assess the quality and accuracy of what occurred during closure and make necessary adjustments to teaching The learner’s working memory summarizes for itself its perception of what has been learned.

At this time the student often completes the rehearsal process and attaches sense and meaning to the new learning, thereby increasing the probability that it will be retained in long-term storage Closure Memory, Retention, and Learning Primacy-Receny Effect *2 part process
1. effects of the past learning on processing of new learning

2. degree to which the new learning will be useful to learning in the future. A Look at How the Brain Learns according to David A. Sousa Left Side Right Side Analysis

numbers Creativity

objects "Most people have a preferred hemisphere. the preference affects their personality, abilities, and learning styles" Sousa
It is important as educators we teach to both hemispheres. Hemisphere Preference Teenagers are not getting enough sleep: A quick look at the circadian rhythm and how it affects learning. What about school start times? The Importance of the Arts "Although learning in other disciplines often develops a single talent or skill, the arts engage many skills and abilities." Sousa Visual Arts
Movement Topics to discuss:
Playing an instrument
Dance and Theater
Strategies for using Movement Movement Think of some ways you incorporate movement into your classroom.
Maybe it's by doing Yoga, role-playing, or even energizers Complexity Vs. Difficulty Complexity and Difficulty

• Complexity and difficulty are two different mental processes, although often used

• By understanding the differences, we can more effectively lead others in helping improve student ability. Complexity vs. Difficulty Complexity:

processes the
brain goes



More effective
when learning

more complex Difficulty:

the amount of
effort the
learner must
expend within
the level of
complexity to
the learning
activity Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy Complexity Difficulty Bloom's Revised Taxonomy With a partner discuss the scenarios below.
Does the complexity or difficulty increase, and why? Activity A Activity B Increased Complexity or Difficulty? Make an outline of the story you just read. Compare and contrast the personalities of Julius Caesar and Macbeth Make an outline of the last two stories you read After reading three acts of Macbeth, write a plausible ending References:

Understanding the Differences Between complexity and Difficulty, pg. 270 , How the Brain Learns, David A. Sousa

Laurie Boehn, Southwest Baptist University Inside the brain "Lecture continues to be the most prevalent teaching mode in secondary and higher education, despite overwhelming evidence that it produces the lowest degree of retention for most learners." Sousa Another thing we can do that will pay off is to focus on Enhancing Retention Chunking *Pattern chunking
ex: memorize the string of words:

Cow Grass Field Tennis Net Soda Dog Lake Fish get a method to remember the sequence, because nine is more than the typical function capacity. Similarity Store by Similarity We need to teach the most important part of our concept and teach it correctly first. *Categorical Chunking
a more sophisticated process for large amounts of information Advantages and Disadvantages
Similarities and Differences
Structure and Function
Arrays Mnemonics (Greek "to remember" 2 types that can be used:

*Rhyming Mnemonics ex: "I before e, except after c..." *Reduction Mnemonics ex: ROY G BIV Transfer Positive and Negative Transfer Transfer and Meaning

"Meaning often results when past learning moves form long-term storage into working memory and interacts with new information." Sousa Teachers are the instrument of Transfer Working Memory Long-Term Storage Retrieve by Difference Avoid Teaching Similarity at the Same Time Think of it as how you would recognize your best friend in a crowd. It is not because he has two arms, two legs, a head, and a torso. These characteristics make him similar to all others. Rather, it is his more subtle differences, such as facial features, walk, voice, that allow you to distinguish him from everyone else. His unique Characteristics are call his critical attributes." Sousa Critical Attributes

Characteristics that make one idea unique from all others.

Cues= the differences

Think about two similar concepts that you teach. Past learning Helps in Present learning Present learning Helps in Future Learning Working memory
the second temporary memory. The place where conscious processing occurs. Capacity of working memory Long term storage and the factors that effect it. Is your classroom environment conducive to learning?
Are you motivating your students?
Are you considering ALL learning styles?
Are you providing feedback?
Does it make sense to your students?
Does it have meaning?
Are you incorporating novelty? Alright Everybody time to wake up and get moving. Stand up and stretch! Designing your lessons So how do we use the knowledge we gained today to plan your daily lessons. Considerations:

Learning engages the entire person

The human brain seeks patterns in its search for meaning

Emotions are an integral part of learning, retention , recall

Past experience always affects new learning
The brains working memory has limited capacity
Lecture usually results in the lowest degree of retention

The brain is a parallel processor performing many functions simultaneously
practice does not make perfect
each brain is unique
-Sousa Using Madeline Hunter's model as a framework

Not every lesson needs to include every component. The teacher should choose those that are relevant to the learning objective. We just filled our brains with a lot of knowledge. Most of us have been figuring out how to incorporate it into our teaching.
Now, considering the above, lets think about how your order your lessons and what your timing is in a class period.
Do you pass back papers first?
Do you get straight to the point?
Do you end your lesson with a review?
Think about why you sequence your lessons this way. What side do most of our schools cater to? I hope you leave here with new knowledge that you will be able to implement into your teaching, and that it will ultimately help make you a more successful educator!
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