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Skeletal System Diseases or Disorders

Kyphosis, Scoliosis, Lordosis, Osteoporosis

Dav'Esha Pruitt

on 11 February 2013

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Transcript of Skeletal System Diseases or Disorders

Scoliosis Cause Lordosis Cause Osteoporosis Cause Cites Dav'Esha Pruitt Taylor Schmidt
Brooke Guinn Angelique Lett
Dora Meyer Brittanie Williamson Skeletal System Diseases or Disorders Kyphosis Test Symptoms Treatment Prevention Treatment Prevention Symptoms Test Test Prevention Treatment Symptoms A curving of the spine that causes a bowing or rounding of the back which leads to a hunchback or slouching posture An outward curvature of the thoracic spine Difficulty Breathing Fatigue Mild Back Pain Round back appearance Tenderness and stiffness in the spine Degenerative diseases of the spine Fractures caused by osteoporosis Injury Slipping of one vertebra forward on another Endocrine diseases Connective tissue disorders Infections Muscular
Dystrophy Neurofibromatosis Paget's Disease Polio Spina Bifida Tumors Physical Examination Spine X-Ray Pulmonary Function Tests MRI Varies depending on type Appearance of poor posture, "hunchback" Usually, symptoms remain fairly constant
and do not become progressively
worse with time. In severe cases, symptoms may worsen with time. Types Three main types of abnormal kyphosis
*Postural Kyphosis
*Scheurermann's Kyphosis
*Congenital Kyphosis Postural Kyphosis Most common type
*More common in girls
*Typically noticed in adolescence Caused by: poor posture, weakening
of the muscles and ligaments in the back Often slow to develop and does
not progress with time Does NOT lead to a severe curve
(No risk of neurologic, cardiac, or
pulmonary problems) Scheuermann's Kyphosis First noticed in adolescence Result of a structural
deformity of the vertebrae More common to develop scoliosis (Kyphoscoliosis) than the other types of Kyphosis Congenital Kyphosis Least common type Caused by an abnormal development
of the vertebrae during development
prior to birth May lead to fusion of
several vertebrae Other Other disorders can lead to kyphosis Osteoporosis Spine infections Spinal Tumors Degenerative Arthritis Ankylosing Spondylitis These can all lead to the collapse of the front of the vertebra and the development of kyphosis. Postural Kyphosis: Physical Therapy: strengthen muscles and correct posture Mild pain relievers and antiinflammatory medications Surgery is not needed (Curves do not worsen with time) Scheuermann's Kyphosis Combination of physical therapy and medications A brace may be effective if patient is still growing. Routine X-Rays to monitor the degree over time Surgery may be recommended: to partially
correct the deformity, relieve pain, improve
spinal alignment Indications for surgery:
Curve greater than 75 degrees, uncontrolled pain, and
neurologic, cardiac, or pulmonary complaints Congenital Kyphosis Surgery while the patient is an infant Kyphoplasty: a balloon is inserted into the affected vertebra and filled with a liquid that hardens to restore the vertebral height Procedure due to the painful collapse of vertebrae due to osteoporosis Prognosis Ongoing Care: Most patients do not require continued care by a physician. Patients will continue therapy and exercises. Scheuermann's and Congenital
kyphosis are results of a structural problem.
Nothing can be done to prevent these types of kyphosis. Bracings and exercises can help slow
progression Scheuermann's kyphosis. Postural Kyphosis- physical
therapy and exercises Most patients respond very well to a combination of physical therapy, exercises, and medications. Severe cases may require surgery. Patients are able to return to normal activities after fully recovered. Type Achondroplasia Spondylolisthesis "MedicineNet - Health and Medical Information Produced by Doctors." MedicineNet - Health and Medical Information Produced by Doctors. WebMD, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/hp.asp>. "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001240.htm>. Thinning of Bones Smaller bone mass Back pain (due to fracture
or collapsed vertebra) Loss of height over time Stooped posture Easily occurring bone fractures Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry Medication Hormone related therapy Adequate amounts of calcium Adequate amounts
of Vitamin D Regular Exercise Prominence of the buttocks Back Pain Pain down the legs Decrease in the density of bone: its strength and resulting in fragile bones Muscular dystrophy Leads to abnormally porous
bone that is compressible
(like a sponge) Developmental dysplasia of the hip Can be present without any symptoms
for decades (doesn't cause symptoms until
bone fractures) X-ray Bones scans Prognosis Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) CT or CAT scan Decreased quality of life, lost workdays,
and disability associated with osteoporotic
bone fractures High risk for many fractures
and increased risk of death The following are factors that will increase the risk of developing osteoporosis:

Female gender
Caucasian or Asian race
Thin and small body frame
Family history of osteoporosis
Personal history of fracture as an adult
Cigarette smoking
Excessive alcohol consumption
Lack of exercise
Diet low in calcium
Poor nutrition and poor general health
Low estrogen levels in women
Low testosterone levels in men Blood test
Certain medications: long-term use of heparin (a blood thinner),
antiseizure medications and long-term use of oral corticosteroids. Curvature of the vertebrae Swayback Physical Therapy Medications Back brace Surgery No known guidelines Early detection is important 4 main types of Lordosis
Cervical Lordosis
Thoracic Lordosis
Lumbar Lordosis
Congenital Lordosis Cervical Lordosis
cervical region of the spine(the neck area) Thoracic Lordosis
thoracic region of the spine Lumbar Lordosis
lumbar region of the spine Congenital Lordosis
present since before birth Cause Type Treatment Test Symptoms Prevention Juvenile Osteoporosis. (n.d.). Juvenile Osteoporosis. Retrieved from http://www.lpch.org/DiseaseHealthInfo/HealthLibrary/diabetes/josteo.html

Kyphosis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (n.d.). U.S National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001240.htm

Lordosis. (n.d.). Lordosis. Retrieved from http://www.lpch.org/DiseaseHealthInfo/HealthLibrary/orthopaedics/lordosis.html

MedicineNet - Health and Medical Information Produced by Doctors. (n.d.). MedicineNet - Health and Medical Information Produced by Doctors. Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/hp.asp

Osteoporosis â  What's Your Risk? (n.d.). Marsha Nunley MD. Retrieved from http://marshanunleymd.wordpress.com/2012/08/17/osteoporosis-whats-your-risk/

Osteoporosis. (n.d.). - Cedars-Sinai. Retrieved from http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Health-Conditions/Osteoporosis.aspx
Swayback (Lordosis). (n.d.). - Cedars-Sinai. Retrieved from http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Health-Conditions/Swayback-Lordosis.aspx Hereditary factors Injuries or infections Birth defects Backache or low-back pain Spinal curve measurement MRI of the spine Varies for each patient No way to really prevent Thoracic Scoliosis
curve in the upper part of the spine Lumbar Scoliosis
curve in the lower part of the spine Non-structural Scoliosis
structurally normal spine that appears to be curved due to another condition Structural scoliosis
fixed curvature of spine 4 types of Structural scoliosis
Congenital Idiopathic
of unknown/unidentified cause Neuromuscular
curve due to a condition affecting posterior muscles or nerves Osteopathic
due to a bone abnormality. Congenital
present since before birth.
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